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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (63):
1

Flourescein

Orange dye that when used with a woods lamp, corneal abrasions, foreign bodies, ulcers, infection and herpatic dendrites can be seen.

2

Topical anesthetic MOA

Stabilizes neuronal membranes inhibiting nerve impulses.

3

Short-acting topical anesthetics

Proparacaine (Alcaine)
Oxybrupocaine/Benoxinate (novesin, novesine)
Very short acting
-Benoxinate comes in combo with flourescine
-Proparicaine is most often used because there is less stinging on application.

4

Tetricaine (pontocaine)

Longer acting topical anesthetic

5

Topical Anesthetic SE

- Stinging, irritation
- Hypersensitivity rxn
- Prolonged use may inhibit healing
- Must protect eye from irritants until it wears off.

6

Topical Anesthetic CI

**Never write a script for these!**
- Any hypersensitivity to anesthetics
- liver disease
- Anticholinesterases
- Dry eye
- Perforating eye injury

7

Diclofenac (Voltaren)

NSAID used for post-op pain/inflammation after cataract surgery

8

Ketorlac (acular)

NSAID: Can be used for allergic conjunctivitis.

9

Dont use opth. NSAIDS for longer than _______ weeks

two. can cause corneal injury

10

Corticosteroids

Use of corticosteroids should be reserved for an opthalmologist

11

Corticosteroid indications

- Acute iritis
- Stromal keratitis
- Chemical burns
- (Epi)scleritis

12

Prednisolone acetate 1% soln (Pred Forte)

- Most commonly used opthalmic corticosteroid
- Dexamethasone and Flourometholone are also used.

13

Corticosteroid SE

Short-term: Mydriasis, Ptosis, healing inhibition.

Long-term: Cataracts, corneal thinning/rupture, glaucoma, immmunosuppression, keratitis.

14

Corticosteroid CI

Viral or fungal disease of cornea or conjunctiva

15

Decongestants MOA

Over the counter
Causes pupil dilation, increase outflow of aqueous humor, vasoconstriction.

16

Decongestant Indications

Allergic conjunctivitis (redness, itching, burning, excessive tearing)

17

Decongestant SE

Burning, blurred vision, pupil dilation, rebound congestion.
Not to be used with glaucoma

18

Antihistamines

Prescription and OTC
Patanol (prescription)
Ketotifen (OTC)

19

Antihistamine SE

Eye irritation, stinging upon application.

20

Most antihistamines can be used with ______ ______ _____.

Contact lens wearers. Must take out for 10 minutes before and after application.

21

Mast Cell Stabilizer

Cromolyn Sodium (Opticrom)
Inhibits mast cell degranulation
Must take 4x per day
Can use long-term

22

Sulfonamide MOA

ABx: Inhibits synthesis of folic acid

23

Sulfonamide Indication

Lid infxns
Conjunctivitis
Corneal abrasion, ulcer
Infxn prevention

24

Sulfacetamide

Bleph-10, Ocu-Sul, Sodium Sulamyd, Sulf-10

25

Sulfonamide SE

Local irritation, stinging, burning

26

Flouroquinolones MOA

ABx: Inhibits DNA synthesis

27

Flouroquinolones Indications

Lid infxns
Conjunctivitis (not 1st line)
Corneal abrasion, ulcer
Prevent infxns
*Should be used in pseudomonas is suspected.*
**contact lens wearers = pseudomonas**

28

Flouroquinolone types

Ciproflaxacin, Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin

29

Flouroquinolones SE

Burning, stinging, foreign body sensation, photophobia

30

Aminoglycosides MOA

Bind to ribosomes and inhibit tRNA synthesis

31

Aminoglycosides indications

Lid infxns
Conjunctivitis
Corneal abrasion, ulcer
Infxn prevention

32

Aminoglycosides types

Gentamycin, Tobramycin,
Neomycin (high incidence of allergy)

33

Aminoglycosides SE

**Generally avoid these for run of the mill conjunctivitis**
Burning, itching, erythema

34

Macrolides MOA

Inhibits tRNA synthesis

35

Macrolide Types

Erythromycin (cheap), Azythromycin (spendy)

36

Macrolide Indications

Same as the others

37

Bacitracin MOA

Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis

38

Bacitracin Indications

Lid infxns
Conjunctivitis
Corneal abrasion, ulcer
Prevent infxns

39

Trimethoptrim Sulfate (Polytrim)

Combo of two antibiotics
Ok for sulfa allergies!!
Used for the same stuff.

40

Idoxuridine (Dendrid)

- Antiviral
- Used for herpes simplex keratitis
- Blocks reproduction of HSV

41

Trifuridine (Viroptic)

- Antiviral
- Used for keratoconjunctivitis, keratitis
- May cause burning, stinging
Used if vidarabine is ineffective

42

Vidarabine (Vira-a)

- Used for keratoconjunctivitis and keratitis
- May cause haze, burning

43

You should never treat ocular herpes in a _____ _____ setting.

Primary care. refer to optho.

44

Cycloplegics MOA

Paralyze the ciliary muscles and cause dilation of the pupil.

45

Cycloplegic Indications

- Dilation before eye exam
- Pre and post-op
- Pain relief for abrasions/iritis/uveitis

46

Cycloplegic types

Atropine, Scopolamine, Cyclopentolate, Mydriacyl

47

Cycloplegic CI

- Angle closure glaucoma
- People w/ narrow angles
- Caution in children and elderly

48

Cycloplegic SE

Blurred vision
Burning/stinging
Eye irritation
Photophobia
Swelling of eyelids

49

Agents for glaucoma

1st line: Prostaglandin Analogs
2nd line: Beta Blockers

50

Prostaglandin Analog MOA

Increase uveoscleral flow

51

Prostaglandin types

Latanoprost (Xalatan)
Bimatoprost (Lumigan)
Tafloprost (Zioptan)

52

Prostaglandin SE

Decreased visual acuity
Eye discomfort
Dry eye
Foreign body sensation

53

Prostaglandin may decrease efficacy of ________.

NSAIDS

54

Beta Blocker MOA

May decrease aqueous humor formation or increase outflow.

55

Beta Blocker types

Betaxolol (Betoptic) - selective
Timolol maleate (Timoptic) - non
Levobunolol (Betagan) - non

56

Beta Blocker SE

Decrease Cardiac output
Bronchospasm
Bradycardia
Heart block
Hypotension

57

Beta Blocker CI

Asthma
COPD
Sinus bradycardia
2nd or 3rd degree AV block
Overt cardiac failure

58

Alpha Andrenergic Agonists MOA

- Reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing outflow and reducing aqueous humor production
- 3rd line for glaucoma
- effective but not commonly used due to SE, many drug interactions

59

Alpha Andrenergic Agonist Types

Brimonidine (Alphagan P)
Apraclonidine (Iopidine)

60

Cholinergic Agonists MOA

Contract ciliary muscle, allowing increased outflow.
**out of favor**

61

Cholinergic Agonists SE

Brow ache, Induced Myopia, Decreased vision in low light.
**Out of favor**

62

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitirs

Acetazolamide. Do not appear to be as effective as other therapies, but can be used when treatment of angle closure glaucoma is delayed

63

T or F: Eye drops do not have systemic effects

False. They do. Look that shit up.