Posterior Chamber DIsorders Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology > Posterior Chamber DIsorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Posterior Chamber DIsorders Deck (25):
1

Retinal detachment

- Primary event is retinal tear
- Vitreous fluid passes through tear and lodges behind the sensory retina.
- Retina progressively detaches.

2

Predisposing retinal detachment factors

Age: 50-75
Myosis
Cataract extraction
Trauma
Family history
Advanced diabetes

3

Retinal detachment S/S

- Blurred vision in one eye
- Floaters, move about vision
- Flashing lights
- No pain or redness

4

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO)

An embolism that enters and occludes the retinal artery

5

CRAO predisposing factors

Old age
Carotid artery disease
A-fib
HTN
Diabetes
Temporal Arteritis

6

CRAO S/S

Sudden profound monocular vision loss
Painless
Can detect hand movements, but cant count fingers

7

Main fundascopic exam finding in CRAO

**Pallor of the optic disc**
Inchemic retinal whitening
Cherry red macula
Marked afferent pupillary defect

8

CRAO prognosis

Very poor vision prognosis if not resolved within 90 minutes.
REFER!

9

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

An occlusion of the central vein that results in vision loss. Painless.
Refer to an optho

10

A Pt with a central retinal artery occlusion should be screened for?

Diabetes, HTN, Hyperlipidemia and Glaucoma

11

Amaurosis Fugax

Monocular loss of vision lasting a few minutes with a complete recovery
Characterized by a curtain closing vertically over the visual field, and a similar curtain opening.

12

What must be evaluated in patients with amaurosis fugax?

- Doppler ultrasound of carotids
- EKG to R/O A.fib
- Labs

13

Amaurosis Faux Tx

Refer
Ocular massage
Lower IOP
Low dose ASA

14

Optic Neuritis

Generally occurs in young females and is an early sign of MS.
Unilateral decrease in vision over 1-3 days
Loss of color vision

15

How to pupils appear in optic neuritis?

Relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD)

16

Should oral steroids be given to patients with optic neuritis?

NO, push IV steroids. Oral steroids are malpractice for some reason...

17

Papilledema

Optic disc swelling due to increased intracranial pressure.
-Tumors
-Subdural hematoma
-Brain abscess, meningitis

18

Papilledema S/S

Slow vision loss from ICP/optic nerve swelling
Acute attacks of blindness while lying flat
Usually bilateral
disc margins blurred

19

Giant cell Arteritis - Temporal Arteritis

Sudden, painless nonprogressive vision loss.
HA, scalp tenderness
**Jaw claudication**
Patients >55

20

GCA findings

+ RAPD
Pale, swollen disc
Get Labs

21

GCA Tx

Treat with steroids (do not wait for biopsy)
Refer to surgery

22

Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)

10% of elderly have it
Wearing out of the retina and photoreceptors
More common in caucasians

23

Dry ARMD

Gradual vision loss
Drusen

24

Wet ARMD

Sudden vision loss
subretinal neovascularzation
Accumulation of fluid and blood
Acute distortion in vision

25

ARMD Tx

Control CVD
DIet high in fruits and veggies
Antioxidants
Stop smoking
MOnitor vision with amsler grid