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Year 2 - Ophthalmology (DP) > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (43):
1

Corneal penetration is good for what type of drugs?

Low molecular weight

2

Is the epithelium of the cornea lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Lipophilic

3

Is the stroma of the cornea lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophilic

4

Give an example of a drug that has both lipophilic and hydrophilic, and so easily penetrates the cornea?

Chloramphenicol

5

If there is ocular surface inflammation, how does this affect the cornea?

Reduces the lipophilic nature of the endothelium (ie Makes it more hydrophilic)

6

What part of tears may impede drug penetration?

Lipid layer

7

Do topical steroids need to be hydrophobic, hydrophilic or both?

Both

8

What chemicals can modify topical steroids to make them:
A) More hydrophobic
B) More hydrophilic

A) Alcohol/Acetate
B) Phosphate

9

In what corneal state would prednisolone acetate be used?

Uninflamed

10

When is prednisolone acetate used?

Post-op

11

In what corneal state would prednisolone phosphate be used?

Inflammed

12

When is prednisolone phosphate used?

Corneal disease
If low does steroids are needed

13

What is benzalkonium and how does it work?

A preservative
Disrupts lipid layer of tear film:
- Aids penetration of some drugs

14

What drugs is used to treat increased IOP in glaucoma and what is the benzalkonium concentration?

Bimatoprost 0.03%:
- [Benzalkonium) = 0.05mg/ml

15

What is the benzalkonium concentration in Bimatoprost 0.01%?

0.2mg/ml

16

How can topical drugs reach the systemic circulation? What can limit this?

Tears pumped out of lacrimal gland rapidly:
- Excess is absorbed in nasopharynx
Punctal occlusion

17

When are topical steroids used?

Postoperative cataracts
Uveitis
Prevent corneal graft rejection

18

Which of the following is not a systemic side effect of steroids:
- Gastric ulceration
- Immunosuppression
- Osteoporosis
- Weight loss
- Diabetes
- Neuropsychiatric effects

Weight loss (causes weight gain)

19

What local effects can topical steroids have on the eye?

Cataract
Glaucoma
Exacerbation of viral symptoms (Corneal melt in herpetic ulcer)

20

Rank the following topical steroids from weakest to most potent:
- Fluorometholone
- Predsol
- Dexamethasone/Prednisolone
- Betamethasone

Fluorometholone
Predsol
Betamethasone
Dexamethasone/Prednisolone

21

When are antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers used?

Hayfever
Allergic conjunctivitis

22

When would topical NSAIDs be used?

Post-refractive laser treatment

23

What is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma?

Raised IOP

24

What speed of progression does glaucoma typically have?

Slow

25

When treating glaucoma, is the goal to halt it or slow progression?

Slow progression

26

Give an example of a prostanoid used to treat glaucoma

Latanoprost

27

Give an example of a beta blocker used to treat glaucoma

Timolol
Betaxolol

28

Give an examples of some carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used to treat glaucoma

Topical -> Dorzolamide
Systemic -> Acetazolamide

29

What classes of drugs are Brimonidine and Pilocarpine and what are they used to treat?

Brimonidine -> Alpha2 adrenergic agonist
Pilocarping ->
Glaucoma

30

What is cosopt?

Combination of Dorzolamide and Timolol

31

What drugs are administered intravitreally and what are they used to treat?

Antibiotics -> Endophthalmus
Steroids
Anti-VEGF -> Proliferative retinopathy

32

How do ophthalmic anaesthetics work?

Block Na+ channels and impede nerve conduction

33

In which of the following situations would ophthalmic anaesthetics not be used:
- Foreign body removal
- Tonometry (IOP measurement)
- Corneal scraping
- Comfort
- Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis

34

When is fluorescein used?

In corneal abrasion
Tonometry
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
Angiography

35

Apart fro fluorescein, what is another diagnostic dye?

Proxymetacaine hydrochloride

36

How do mydriatics work?

Block parasympathetic supply to iris -> Pupil dilation

37

Give some examples of mydriatics

Tropicamide
Cyclopentalate

38

What are some side effects of mydriatics?

Blurring
Acute angle-closure glaucoma

39

What do sympathomimetics do to the pupil? What do they not affect?

Pupil dilation
Don't affect ciliary muscles -> Allow accommodation

40

Give some examples of sympathomimetics

Phenylephrine
Atropine

41

What is a side effect of vigabratin (anti-epileptic)?

Constricts visual field

42

What is an optical side effect of ethambutol?

Optic neuritis

43

What is an optical side effect of chloroquine?

Maculopathy