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AY Ophthalmology > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (38):
1

What is needed for drugs to be able to work topically?

Corneal penetration

2

What kind of drugs are able to penetrate the epithelium?

Lipid soluble drugs

3

What kind of drugs are able to penetrate the stroma?

Water soluble drugs

4

What is added to topical steroids to make them more hydrophillic?

Phosphate

5

When is prednisolone acetate used?

Post operatively as has good penetration in uninflamed cornea and isn't washed away by tears

6

When is prednisolone phosphate used?

Cornea disease or when want low dose steroids
Use for surface of eye

7

What is added to topical steroids to make them more hydrophobic?

Acetate or alcohol

8

What is the role of Benzalkonium in topical drops?

Preservative
Disrupts lipid layer of tear film
Aids penetration of some drugs

9

What is bimatoprost used to treat?

Lower IOP in glaucoma

10

What are steroids used topically to treat?

Post op cataracts
Uveitis
Prevent corneal graft

11

Local side effects of steroids on the eye

Glaucoma
Cataract
Exacerbation of viral infection

12

Systemic side effects of steroids

Gastric ulceration
Immunosuppression
Osteoporosis
Weight gain
DIabetes
Neuropsychiatric side effects

13

What other snti-inflmmatory gents (other than steroids) are used in hayfever/allergic conjunctivitis?

Antihistamines
Mast cell stabilisers

14

When would NSAIDs be used in ophthamology?

Pain relief (e.g. post refractive laser)

15

What is glaucoma?

A group of diseases characterised by progressive optic neuropathy resulting in characteristic field defects

16

What currently is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma?

Raised intra-ocular pressure

17

What classes of drugs are used to treatment glaucoma?

Prostanoids
Beta blockers
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Alpha adrenergic agonist
Parasympathomimetic

18

Example of prostanoid

Latanoprost

19

How do beta blockers work in glaucoma?

Work on cilliary bodies (turn off tap)

20

Example of topical & systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Topical - Dorzolamide
Systemic - Acetazolamide

21

How do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors help in glaucoma ?

Work on cilliary bodies (turn off ta)

22

How to alpha adrenergic agonists help in galucoma?

Increase outflow

23

Example of parasympathomimetic drug

Pilocarpine

24

How do parasympathomimetics help in glaucoma?

Pulls iris tight to open up trabecular meshwork

25

Local side effects of parasympathomimetic

Difficulty seeing in the dark

26

What is first line management in glaucoma?

Prostanoid

27

When is the intraitreal route of administration used?

Antibiotics in endophthalmitis
Intra-ocular steroids
Anti-VEGF

28

How does local anaesthetic work on the eye?

Blocks doium channels and impedes nerve conduction

29

When is local anaesthetic used in ophthalmology?

FB removal
Tonometry (IOP measurement)
Corneal scraping
Comfort

30

What is most common diagnostic dye used?

Fluorescein

31

When is fluorescein used?

Show corneal abrasion
Tonometry
Diagnosing nasolacrimal duct obstruction
Angiography

32

Examples of mydriatics

Tropicamide
Cyclopentolate

33

How do mydriatics work?

Cause pupil dilation by blocking parasympathetic supply to iris

34

Side effects of mydriatics

Blurring
AACG

35

How do sympathomimetics work?

Act on sympathetic system
Cause pupil to dilate
Do not affect the ciliary muscle (accomodation)

36

Example of sympathomimetics

Phenylephrine
Atropine

37

What are the ocular side effects of ethambutol?

Colour vision abnormalities
Optic neuropathy

38

Side effects of chloroquine

Maculopathy