Pharmacology Definitions Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Pharmacology Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Definitions Deck (73):
1

Additive Effects

Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.

2

Adverse Effects

Any undesirable bodily effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs

3

Agonist

A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more biochemical receptor types in the body.

4

Allergic reaction

An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication

5

Antagonist

A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more biochemical receptor types in the body

6

Bioavailability

A measure of the extent of drug absorption into systemic circulation for a given drug and route (from 0% to 100%)

7

Chemical name

The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug

8

Contraindication

Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable

9

Drug

Any chemical that affects the physiologic process of a living organism

10

Drug-Induced teratogenesis

The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs

11

Duration of Action

The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response.

12

First Pass Effect

The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream

13

Generic Name

The name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council. The generic name is generally much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is not protected by trademark.

14

Half-life

In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body.

15

Idiosyncratic reaction

An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient

16

Metabolite

A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug

17

Onset of Action

The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing

18

Pharmacodynamics

The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity.

19

Pharmacognosy

The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources

20

Pharmacokinetics

The rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body. It includes the phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs

21

Pharmacology

Broadest term for the study or science of drugs

22

Pharmacotherapeutics

The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs

23

Prodrug

An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body

24

Receptor

A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. Receptors bind specific substances (e.g. drug molecules) and one or more corresponding cellular effects occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction.

25

Steady State

The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose.

26

Synergistic Effects

Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.

27

Therapeutic Effect

The desired or intended effect of a particular medication

28

Therapeutic Index

The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug

29

Toxicology

The study of poisons. It deals with the effects of drugs and other chemicals in living systems, their detection and treatments to counteract their poisonous effects

30

Trade Name

The commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer (also called the proprietary name or brand name)

31

Active Transport

The active energy-requiring movement of a substance between different tissues via biomolecular pumping mechanisms contained within cell membranes

32

Diffusion

The passive movement of a substance (e.g. a drug) between different tissues from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentrations

33

Polypharmacy

The use of many different drugs concurrently in treating a patient, who often has several health problems.

34

Drug Therapy During Pregnancy

*Fetus exposed to many of the same substances as mother
*First trimester

35

Iatrogenic Effects

Unintentional adverse effects that are caused by the actions of a physician or other health care professional or by a specific treatment

36

Legend Drugs

Medications that are not legally available without a prescription from a licensed prescriber. Prescription drugs.

37

Over-the-counter drugs

OTC Medications that are legally available without prescription

38

Acute Pain

Pain that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated, and typically occurs over less than a 6-week period

39

Agonist

A substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response

40

Allopurinol

Drug Profile- A xanthine oxidase inhibitor which prevents uric acid production and is useful in preventing gout attacks

41

Analgesics

Medications that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness.

42

Anesthesia

Loss of the ability to feel pain, resulting from the administration of an anesthetic drug or other medical interventions.

43

Anesthetics

Drugs that depress the central nervous system to produce diminution of consciousness, loss of responsiveness to sensory stimulation, or muscle relaxation.

44

Antagonist

A drug that binds to a receptor and prevents (blocks) a response.

45

Arthritis

Inflammation of the joints

46

Balanced Anesthesia

The practice of using combinations of drugs rather than a single drug to produce anesthesia

47

Chronic Pain

Pain resulting from any disorder that is often difficult to treat. Typically it is pain that lasts 3-6 months

48

Gate Theory

The most common and well described theory of pain transmission and pain relief.

49

General Anesthesia

A drug-induced state in which the CNS is altered to produce varying degrees of pain relief throughout the body as well as depression of consciousness, skeletal muscle relaxation, and diminished or absent reflexes.

50

Gout

Hyperuricemia; the arthritis caused by tissue build up or uric acid crystals

51

Inflammation

A localized protective response stimulated by injury to tissues that serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue.

52

Local Anesthetics

Drugs that render a specific portion of the body insensitive to pain at the level of the peripheral nervous system, normally without affecting consciousness. (May also be called regional anesthetics)

53

Malignant Hyperthermia

A genetically linked major adverse reaction to general anesthesia, characterized by a rapid rise in body temperature, as well as tachycardia, tachypnea, and sweating

54

Morphine Sulfate

*Drug Profile* A naturally occurring alkaloid derived from the opium poppy, is the drug prototype for opioids and narcotics

55

NSAIDS

Non Steroidal Antinflammatory Drugs (abbreviation) A large, chemically diverse group of drugs that are analgesics and also possess antinflammatory and antipyretic activity but are not steroids

56

Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

NMBA (abb) A group of drugs that prevent nerve transmission in certain muscles, leading to paralysis of the muscles. They are often used with anesthetics for surgical procedures.

57

Neuropathic Pain

Pain that results from a disturbance of function or pathologic change in a nerve.

58

Opiate Analgesic

Natural narcotic drug containing or derived from opium that binds to opiate receptors in the brain to relieve pain.

59

Opioid Analgesics

Synthetic narcotic drugs that bind to opiate receptors to relieve pain but are not themselves derived from the opium plant.

60

Opioid Tolerance

A normal physiologic condition that results from long-term opioid use, in which larger doses of opiods are required to maintain the same level of analgesia and in which abrupt discontinuation of the drug results in withdrawal symptoms

61

Overton-Meyer Theory

A theory that describes the relationship between the lipid solubility of anesthetic drugs and their potency

62

Pain Threshold

The level of a stimulus that results in the perception of pain.

63

Pain Tolerance

The amount of pain a patient can endure without its interfering with normal function

64

Phantom Pain

Pain experienced in the area of a body part that has been surgically or traumatically removed.

65

Physical Dependence

The physical adaption of the body to the presence of an opioid or other addictive substance.

66

Referred Pain

Pain occurring in an area away from the organ of origin.

67

Rheumatism

General term for any of several disorders characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures, especially joints and related structures.

68

Salicylism

The syndrome of salicylate toxicity, including such symptoms as tinnitus (ringing sound in the ears), nausea and vomiting.

69

Somatic Pain

Pain that originates from skeletal muscles, ligaments, or joints

70

Succinylcholine

*Drug Profile* The only currently available depolarizing NMBA

71

Superficial Pain

Pain that originates from the skin or mucous membranes

72

Topical Anesthetics

A class of local anesthetics that are applied directly to the skin and mucous membranes. They consist of solutions, ointments, gels, creams, powders, ophthalmic drops, and suppositories.

73

Visceral Pain

Pain that originates from organs or smooth muscles.