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Flashcards in Pharmacy Ethics Deck (14):

Define pharmacy ethics

Ethics: systematic study of moral choices

Pharmacy ethics: a branch of medical ethics. Framework for resolving questions about what ought to be done in pharmacy practice.


What is the difference between law, codes and guidelines, and ethics (3)

1) Law :
- rules and regulations represents minimum standards
- applies broad societal standards and expectations

2) Codes and guidelines:
- set minimum professional standards
- reinforced with sanctions by self-regulating professionals

3) Ethics:
- strives for maximum standards
- provides framework for resolving health care dilemmas


List some contemporary issues to do with ethics (5)

1) right to healthcare
2) right to die
3) euthanasia
4) abortion
5) rationing of treatment


Outline the seven principles of the GPhC standards of conduct, ethics and performance (7)

1) make patients your first concern
2) use your professional judgement in the interests of patients and the public
3) show respect for others
4) encourage patients and the public to participate in decisions about their care
5) develop your professional knowledge and competence
6) be honest and trustworthy
7) take responsibility for your working practices


List the four schools that make up the normative theories and briefly explain them. (4)

1) deontology- actions are preformed out of duty or moral obligation

2) consequence- actions are right or wrong according to the balance of their good or bad consequences

3) virtue- places value on the moral character of the actor rather than acts or outcomes of acts.

4) context- appeal to the context of action to determine what should be done: I.e case- based reasoning


Describe the deontological theory (4)

1) appeal to duties to determine what should be done
2) consequences are though to be irreverent
3) what ones duties are is determined by maxims, principles, rules etc
4) duty of care - make patients your first concern


List the four principles of beauchamp and Childress (4)

Basic biomedical ethical principles:
1) non- malefience
2) beneficence
3) autonomy
4) justice


Explain non- maleficience (3)

1) avoid harm
2) justification for acts and omissions
3) withholding/ withdrawing treatment that is not benefiting patient


Explain beneficence (3)

1) promote the well being of others
2) encompasses medical paternalism
3) acting without consent or overriding a persons wishes, wants, or actions, in order to benefit the patient or prevent harm.


Explain autonomy (4)

1) self determination
2) an individual's action ought to be the result of his or her own choices
3) freedom to act independently
4) competent adults informed decision to refuse (even life-saving) treatment supersedes offer of treatment


Explain justice (3)

1) treat similar cases in similar way
2) same respect to patients in different circumstances
3) distribute health care resources (goods and service) fairly


Discuss applying the four principles of beauchamp and Childress to pharmacy (3)

1) different principles apply in different circumstances. Every principle does not apply in every case
2) no one principle is more important the other, although they can be weights differently in different circumstances
3) ethical decision making could involve at least one of four basic principles


Outline the issues with applying the four principles (3)

1) determining which principles apply in the case because every principle dose not apply in every circumstance
2) interpreting the principles
3) weighing the different principles especially, where the principles conflict .


Outline the ethical decision making framework (7)

1) recognise a moral issue
2) gather all relevant information
3) identify type of ethical problem
4) analyse problem
5) explore solutions
6) make decision
7) assess and reflect