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Flashcards in Routes Of Drug Administration Deck (20):
1

List different methods of drug administration (13)

1) oral (po)
2) sublingual
3) buccal

Parenteral routes:
4) intravenous (IV)
5) intramuscular
6) intrathecal
7) intraperitoneal
8) intra- articular

9) rectal (PR)
10) vaginal
11) topical
12) transdermal
13) inhalation

2

What is the aim of drug administration? (3)

1) to diliver drug to site of action
2) drug effect determined by concentration of drug in molecules in plasma
3) concentration determined by rate of entry of drug to plasma and rate of exit from plasma

3

What are the advantages and disadvantages of oral drug administration (4, 4)

Most common method
Advantages:
1) easy, non-invasive, safe
2) portable
3) cheap
4) good absorption

Disadvantages:
1) delayed onset of action
2) absorption affected by stomach contents, pH, transmit time
3) difficulty with swallowing
4) reduced bioavailability

4

What are the advantages and disadvantages of sublingual drug administration (3, 3)

Absorption across mucous membrane under the tongue
Advantages:
1) quick absorption and onset of action
2) avoids "first pass effect"
3) can remove tablet if necessary

Disadvantage:
1) Spray cannot be removed
2) unpleasant taste?
3) short duration of action

4

What is the "first pass effect"

The first-pass effect is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.

5

What are the advantages and disadvantages of buccal drug administration (4, 1)

Absorption across mucous membrane of cheek
Advantages:
1) quick absorption and inset of action
2) avoids "first pass effect"
3) can remove tablet if necessary
4) longer duration of action

Disadvantages
1) unpleasant taste ?

7

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of intravenous (IV) drug administration (4, 7)

Direct administration into the bloodstream via a vein
Advantages:
1) immediate delivery of drug
2) 100% bioavailability
3) large volumes
4) rapid dilution

Disadvantages:
1) pain/discomfort
2) acute overdose possible
3) infection risk
4) patient more dependent
5) reduced mobility
6) can't remove drug once it's given
7) expensive

8

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of subcutaneous (SC) drug administration (3, 4)

Injection under the skin
Advantages:
1) easier access than IV
2) slow uniform absorption
3) rate of absorption can be controlled

Disadvantages:
1) painful
2) infection risk
3) slow absorption
4) limited volume

9

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of intramuscular (IM) drug administration (1, 6)

Injection into a muscle
Advantages:
1) easier than IV

Disadvantages:
1) painful
2) infection risk
3) limited volume
4) slow, erratic absorption
5) avoid in children
6) avoid in coagulopathy

10

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of intrathecal (IT) drug administration (3, 3)

Injection into the sub-arachnoid space of the meninges , usually by lumbar puncture
Advantages:
1) treat/prevent malignancy
2) anaesthesia
3) treat infection

Disadvantages:
1) infection risk
2) high risk procedure
3) catastrophic result if wrong drug given

11

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of intraperitoneal (IP) drug administration (1, 2)

Injection into the peritoneal cavity
Advantages:
1) local administration of antibiotics for Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) patients

Disadvantages:
1) infection risk
2) risk of damaging organs

12

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of intra-articular (IA) drug administration (1, 3)

Injection into a joint
Advantages:
1) local action

Disadvantages:
1) painful
2) limited volume
3) may damage cartilage

13

List the three ways of delivering a drug rectally (PR) (3)

1) suppository
2) enema
3) rectal tube

14

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of rectal drug administration (4, 3)

Advantages:
1) useful if patient vomiting
2) during seizures
3) rapid absorption of some drugs
4) local or systemic action

Disadvantages
1) less favoured
2) erratic absorption of some drugs
3) dosage form may be eliminated before absorption is complete

15

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of vaginal (PV) drug administration (1, 1)

Pressaries , vaginal creams

Advantages:
1) local administration

Disadvantage:
1) less favoured by some

16

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of topical (top) drug administration (2, 2)

Advantages:
1) local effect
2) soothing

Disadvantages:
1) messy
2) difficult application

17

List the different topical forms of drug administration (5)

1) skin creams/ointments
2) lotions
3) eye/nasal/ear drops
4) eye ointment
5) ear/nasal sprays

18

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of transdermal drug administration (3, 2)

Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution. Patches, gels

Advantages:
1) Non-invasive
2) continuous
3) long lasting

Disadvantages
1) slow onset
2) fixed dose

19

List the ways drugs can be delivered by inhalation (3)

1) nebulisers
2) inhalers
3) gaseous anaesthetics

20

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using inhalation for drug administration (3, 2)

Advantages:
1) large surface area for absorption
2) rich blood supply
3) local or systemic action

Disadvantages:
1) membrane irritation
2) equipment