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Flashcards in Pharyngeal Arches Deck (40):
1

What is meckels cartilage also known as?

Cartilage of PA 1

2

What 3 things does meckels cartilage form?

1.) Malleus & incus
2.) Anterior ligament of malleus
3.) Sphenomandibular ligament

3

The cartilage of PA 2 is also known as?

Reichert Cartilage

4

What is formed from Reichert cartilage?

1.) Stapes
2.) Styloid process of the temporal bone
3.) Lesser horn of the hyoid bone

5

The cartilage of PA 3 forms what?

1.) Body of the hyoid bone
2.) Greater horn of the hyoid bone
3.) Thyroid cartilage
4.) Cricoid cartilage

6

The body of the hyoid bone is formed from?

The hypo pharyngeal eminence

7

The 4th and 6th cartilages form what?

The laryngeal cartilage

8

The first arch forms what muscles? What nerve?

The muscles of mastication. CN V

9

The second arch forms what muscles? What nerve?

The facial muscles. CN VII

10

The third arch forms what muscles? What nerve?

Stylopharyngeus m. CN IX

11

The fourth arch forms what muscles? What nerve?

Cricothyroid, levator veli palatini, and constrictors of the pharynx. CN X

12

The sixth arch forms what muscles? What nerve?

Intrinsic muscles of the larynx. CN X

13

Each pharyngeal arch is supplied by what nervous structure?

Its own CN

14

What are special visceral efferents?

Supply muscles derived from the arches

15

What are special visceral afferents?

Supply dermis and mucous membranes of the head and neck

16

The trigeminal nerve supplies which arch?

The first arch

17

The facial nerve supplies which arch?

The second arch

18

The glossopharyngeal nerve supplies which arch?

The third arch. Stylopharyngeus m.

19

The vagus nerve supplies which arches?

Arches 4-6.

20

Aortic arch system initially consists of?

5 pairs of arteries that arise from the aortic sac

21

The primordial pharynx is derived from what?

Foregut

22

What are the pharyngeal pouches?

5 pairs of pouches

23

What do pharyngeal membranes do?

Separate pharyngeal pouches from pharyngeal grooves

24

What does the first pharyngeal membrane become?

The tympanic membrane

25

In general, what does the first pharyngeal pouch become?

Auditory structures

26

Specifically, what does the first pharyngeal pouch become?

1.) Part of the TM
2.) The pharyngotympanic tube
3.) Tubotympanic recess -> tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum

27

In general, what does pharyngeal pouch 2 form?

Tonsils, tonsil crypts, lymphatic tissue

28

What does the 3rd pharyngeal pouch form?

The inferior parathyroid gland and thymus

29

What does the 4th pharyngeal pouch form?

The superior parathyroid gland

30

The first pair of pharyngeal grooves becomes what?

The external auditory meatus

31

What do pharyngeal grooves 2-4 lie in?

The cervical sinus

32

What are cervical (branchial) cysts?

Remnants of the cervical sinus

33

The thyroid gland forms from what?

The thyroid primordium

34

The thyroid gland is connected to the tongue via what structure?

The thyroglossal duct

35

The ultimo pharyngeal body forms what?

Parafollicular cells

36

First arch syndrome is characterized by what phenotypically?

Malformation of eyes, ears, mandible, and palate

37

Treacher-Collins syndrome is characterized as what?

deformed external ears, lower eyelids, and sometimes inner ears

38

Pierre robin sequence is associated with what?

hypoplasia of the mandible, cleft palate, and eyes/ears

39

What is thyroid hemiagenesis?

unilateral failure of thyroid formation

40

What is DiGeorge syndrome?

Agenesis of thymus and parathyroid glands