Flashcards in PHI 111-Test 2 Deck (64)
How is RELIGION different from philosophy?
Religion seeks truth by intuition, faith, and revelation.
How is PHILOSOPHY different from religion?
Philosophy seeks truth by reason and argument
What is Hinduism?
Term used to designate the complex mosaic of religious beliefs and practices of the majority of people in India
What religion is a nontheist religion that believes in the "ultimate transformation" through an aspiration to escape the world of suffering by achieving Nirvana, which is the ultimate egoless state of bliss?
What is Daoism?
Also known as Taoism. A way of life inspired from the rhythms of the natural phenomena
What religion has a montheist religion that believes God (Yahweh) entered into a covenant with Abraham. Through devotion and obedience to the Yahweh, the people will enjoy special consideration and protection?
What is Christianity?
A monotheist religion that split off from Judaism and believe that Jesus is the Son of God and Savior whose death and resurrection makes it possible for them to enjoy eternal life
What religion has a monotheist religion that believes Muhammad is the last and final prophet to receive the word of God (Allah)?
If God is all good (omnibenevolent), then he ________ to _________ evil.
If God is ____________________, then he knows how to end evil.
All knowing (omniscience)
If God is all powerful (_____________), then he had the ability to end evil.
So if evil exists.......
God shouldn't exist because we know that in the Abrahamic faiths they believe that God is all good, all knowing, and all powerful.
What is natural evil?
The human calamities that are the result of natural disasters: earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, disease, crop-destroying droughts, and pestilence, starvation, and other aspects of the natural order that end up destroying lives and crushing human hopes.
What is moral evil?
The pain, suffering, and death inflicted by humans on humans through evil actions: murder, rape, physical abuse, theft, psychological torture, child abuse, warfare, genocide, discrimination, persecution, and other examples of human malevolence.
What is the problem of evil?
The problem of free choice is the problem of free will.
Know what philosophy of religion is NOT meant to do:
E. All of the above (transform you into an atheist, convert you from being an atheist or agnostic to a belief in God or gods, undermine your religious beliefs or "convert" you to another religion, engage you in emotional arguments with classmates over which is the one true religion).
Who set out to create a "secular humanism" or "realized Christianity"?
Who defined religion as "a means toward ultimate transformation?"
Who believed that our definitions of religion tended to be biased?
Who argues that religion is the vital personal quest all must face when encountering nihility (there is no value or meaning in life):
Which of the following atheists said: "Unless you assume a God, the question of life's purpose is meaningless"?
Religions that remain tied to the original people and location from which they developed are called:
Indigenous sacred ways
The name of this religion is defined as "way of life":
Considering the Logical Problem of Evil, the existence of a God (in the traditional western conception) is incompatible (impossible) if evil is present. Which of the following describes this inconsistency?
God is (1) omnibenevolent (all good) and (2) omnipotent (all powerful) while (3) evil is present in the world.
According to theists, what are some hidden premises in the logical problem of evil (working with the version given in the previous problem - number 24)?
If God is (1) omnibenevolent (all good), then he would want to stop evil; if God is (2) omnipotent (all powerful) he has the ability to stop evil.
In order for Alvin Platinga's response to the Logical Problem of Evil to work, he MUST demonstrate:
that it is MERELY possible that God can coexist with evil in the world.
According to Platinga, even though God is omnipotent (all powerful), it is...
all of the above (not within his power to guarantee that free creatures will make good choices, not within his power to create a world containing moral good, but no moral evil, it is not possible for him to carry out logical contradictions)
According to Platinga, even though God is all good and desires a world without evil...
God might have sufficient reasons for allowing pain and suffering in the world.
Even though nearly all atheists and theists agree that the Logical Problem of Evil does not work, they also agree that the Evidential Problem of Evil presents a stronger case against God. In essence, it claims:
God's existence is improbable considering the evil (especially, the apparent pointless evil) in the world.