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Flashcards in Phil 2540 Deck (85)
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What are the 5 Features of the Philosophical technique

1. (Language of the) Problem: philosophers write to address a problem. How is the problem (i) identified, and (ii) developed (i.e., what level of analysis is used for investigation)?

2. What philosophers do with a problem: (a) Give (in)direct answers, (b) Dissolve Problem, (c) Argue for the existence of the problem - solving the problem would be something else entirely

3. Argumentation: Set of reasons offered to support a view or belief by (a) agree with conclusion but not premise, (b) Disagree with conclusion but find the argument powerful or useful for something else, (c) extend an argument to other contexts never considered by the original author

4. Assumptions: Reasons offered in support of conclusions because audience would accept them

5. Evaluation: Examine various possibilities and come to conclusion about what we ought to believe


Define the qualitative distinction of Identity

X and Y are qualitatively Identical IFF (if and only if) they have exactly the same qualities


Define the quantitative distinction of identity

X and Y are quantitatively identical IFF whatever is true of X is true of Y and vice versa


Define the formula for the Metaphysical Criterion

X is a metaphysical criterion of Y in case X provides an explication of what Y consists in, and explication of Y's nature (The essence of a thing)


Define the formula for the Epistemological criterion

X is an epistemological criterion of Y just in case X provides some way of identifying Y (how we come to know a thing)


What is a Kind?

The property/properties shared by members that make them similar or the same (lamps, chairs, books)


Define the formula for Necessity

X is a necessary condition of Y just in Case there could be no Y without X


Define the formula for sufficiency

X is a condition of Y just in case X in and of itself guarantees Y


Define the formula for necessity and sufficiency

X is a necessary and sufficient condition of Y just in case if there's X there's Y, and if there is Y there's X or Y IFF X


Define Descartes Dualism

Identity must be found in whatever remains identical to itself over time.
Material Body cannot be what identifies us because it is ever-changing (sufficient condition of Personal Identity)
The immaterial soul does not change throughout time, therefore the soul is the source of our identity. (necessary and sufficient condition of Personal Identity).


What are some of Locke's assumptions of Personal Identity?

Personal Identity is a matter of psychological continuity

Personal Identity is a matter of consciousness and memories (memory is CENTRAL to identity)

"If I remember doing something, then I am the same person that did that thing."


What does Locke claim about the soul?

Locke is agnostic about the soul (does not really care) as he claims that the soul is irrelevant to personal identity


Outline the case of the Prince and the cobbler and how it relates to Locke's main point of view

In the case of the prince and the cobbler, after switching bodies, the prince in the body of a cobbler would remain a cobbler in the human sense, but the body of the cobbler would really be the prince with regard to the sense of self


What is Locke's definition of Man and Person?

Our conception of a man is tied to bodily action—recall kind/membership in a kind distinction

Being a certain person means being a unique psychological being.


What were the first potential issues mentioned in Class about Locke's account of Personal Identity?

We don’t seem to have the flow of consciousness that Locke requires

We have moments of forgetfulness, unconsciousness, blurred memories

(Amnesia, DID)


Define the soul criterion

X at t1 is the same person as Y at t2 IFF X's soul is the same as Y's soul


What are they explanatory advantages of Descartes Dualism?

1. cartes can explain why mental states (DBI’s) are privileged—they are not attributes of a physical, material substance, so they have no physical properties. Only you have access to your own mind

2.Descartes can explain things like ‘phantom pains’—an experience often reported by recent amputees. The ‘pain’ is a property of the mind while the injury which originally gave rise to it is a separate event occurring in the body. Two separate events yielded by two separate substances.

3. Descartes can also explain why we can’t be corrected about our mental state claims—they are incorrigible—we just cannot be wrong about what we are consciously thinking and no one else has access to our mind so no one else can tell us that we aren’t confused if we feel that way!


What is the Gretchen Weirob Thought Experiment?

Gretchen Weirob, a philosophy professor is dying but even though she is an atheist she wonders about the thought of immortality. The challenge is to provide a criteria of personal identity that enables rational anticipation of the survival of the death of her body. (it must be possible)


What are some issues with the soul criterion?

3rd person Confirmation (re-identification) is obscured. This means that there is no direct or reliable way to re-identift other souls. Solipsism - the self is all we can know to exist

Allows for a number of candidate hypotheses that don't fit our intuitions. For instance; the soul can be multiply realizable, the same body can have multiple similar souls in it over time, the same soul can be detached from reliable indications of persons over time (their psychologies and bodies)


Define the memory criterion version 1

X at t1 is the same person as Y at t2 iff Y remembers the same thoughts and experiences of X.


What is the Transitivity argument?

Brave Officer recalls the memories of the Apple Stealer, thus Brave officer = Apple Stealer; Retired General recalls the memories of the Brave Officer, thus Retired General= Brave Officer. ERGO Retired General = Apple Stealer (by transitivity).


After the transitivity argument (brave officer), what is the revised version of the memory criterion? (MC1A)

X at t1 is the same person as Y at t2 iff Y directly remembers the thoughts and experiences of X
OR Y directly remembers the thoughts and experiences of some Z, who directly remembers the thoughts and experiences of some Q (who remembers R, who remembers S, who remembers T, as needed)…who directly remembers the thoughts and experiences of X


What criticisms come along with the memory criterion 1A?

First bullet:
Deluded: the memory of being someone I am not (Socrates)
Incorrect: recalling an event that did not happen, or happened in a way that does not accurately align with your memory of it (given a host of objective data)

Second bullet:
We must be able to account for well-formed memories. One way to do this is to distinguish genuine from deceptive ones. We may be inclined to say that Y’s memories are genuine IFF Y actually had the experiences she now remembers. However, this begets the problem of circularity:

Problem of circularity:
Memories by their nature when genuine, reveal your past to you. Thus, memories cannot constitute the identity relation, because in order for my memories of the past to be genuine, I already have to be identical to that past experiencer.


After taking into account of the criticisms of the memory criterion 1A, what is the revised Memory criterion 2?

X at t1 is the same person as Y at t2 iff (a) Y seems to remember the thoughts and experiences of X
(either directly or via an overlapping chain of memories[MC1A]),
and (b) Y’s seeming to remember is caused in the right way through a reliable cause


What is the NO COMPETITORS version of the Memory Criterion?

X at t1 is the same person as Y at t2 iff (a) Y seems to remember the thoughts and experiences of X
(either directly or via an overlapping chain of memories[MC1A]),
and (b) Y’s seeming to remember is caused in the right way through a reliable cause [MC2]
and (c) no other beings satisfy conditions (a) and (b) [MC3].


Define the Brain Based Memory Criterion

X at t1 is the same person as Y at t2 iff Y seems to remember X’s thoughts and experiences (either directly or via an overlapping chain of memories), and Y’s memories are caused in the right way, namely, via the brain


Define symmetry as it relates to personal Identity

If X is symmetrical to Y , then Y is symmetrical to X


Define Transitivity as it relates to Personal Identity

If x has the relation to y and y has relation to z, then x has the relation to z


Define Reflexivity as it relates to personal Identity

If x is reflexive to anything, x is reflexive to itself (Brave officer example)


What is the main assumption about Personal Identity criterion

No principle can be a criterion of identity if it permits a one-many relation.

Identity is a 1-1 Relation