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Flashcards in Phonetics And Language Acquisition Deck (36):
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Trachea

The "windpipe" through which air flows from the lungs to the larynx

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Esophagus

A muscular passage connecting the mouth with the stomach

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Larynx

Muscular, cartilaginous part of the respiratory tract that contains the vocal cords

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Epiglottis

Cartilage that covers the opening between the vocal cords and the larynx

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Vocal cords

Elastic muscles that stretch over the larynx

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Voicing

Distinctive feature that describes the extent to which the vocal cords are pulled back (voiceless) or vibrate (voiced)

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Alveolar ridge

Tissue above the upper teeth where the tongue rests to produce certain sounds, such as [z].

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Hard palate

Front surface of the roof of the mouth, leading forward to the alveolar ridge and back to the soft palate

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Soft palate (velum)

Rear surface of the roof of the mouth, leading forward to the hard palate and back towards the larynx

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Place and manner of articulation

Distinctive feature that indicates the location of articulators in the production of speech sounds

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Stops

Speech sound produced, in part, by complete obstruction of airflow

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Frictives

Speech sound, such as /f/, produced when articulators are brought so close together that friction is created as air passes through the mouth.

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Affricate

Speech sound composed of a stop followed by a frictave, for instance, the initial sound in chatter.

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Nasal

Stop produced when air flows from the lungs through the nose , such as [m] or [n].

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Liquid

Consonant produced when articulators are in proximity to each other but do not impede airflow, such as /l/ and /r/.

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Glide

Speech sound produced by transition from one speech sound to another, such as /w/ and /j/.

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Syllabic consonant

Consonant that participates or constitutes the nucleus of a syllable.

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Height

Distinctive feature of vowels determined by the relative position of the tongue when producing the sound

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Frontness

Distinctive feature of vowels realized when the tongue is placed toward the front of the mouth

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Tenseness

Distinctive feature of vowels indicating the relatively loose (central) or tense (peripheral) position of the tongue

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Offglide

Speech sound produced when a vowel moves into a glide, as in how now brown cow?

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Onglide

Speech sound produced when a glide moves into a vowel, as in some pronunciations of Tuesday

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Diphthong

Vowel that begins at one place of articulation and ends at another, as in right.

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Natural class

Set of sounds that share features in such a way as to include all sounds in a set and exclude all others.

For instance, /p, b/ is the natural class of bilabial oral stops.

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Monophthong

A single vowel articulated without change in quality throughout the course of a syllable, as in bed.

A simple and pure vowel.

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Phoneme

Distinctive sound of a language

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Allophone

Any variant of a phoneme; for example, perhaps realized two allophones of the phoneme /p/, one aspirated and the other not

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Minimal pair

Words distinguished by only one distinctive feature of one sound, as in pat and bat.

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Assimilation

Phonological process in which a sound changes to resemble a nearby sound, as when in 'not' becomes im in impossible

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Deletion

Phonological process in which speech sounds disappear from words, for instance, as when the vowel in the second syllable of laboratory is lost in pronunciation of the word

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Insertion

Phonological process in which a sound is added to a word, as in the /k/ in some pronunciations of length or the /r/ in some pronunciations of wash

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Metathesis

Phonological process in which sounds switch places in the phonemic structure of a word ( aks becomes ask)

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Pitch

Rate of repetition or vibration of vocal cords in the production of speech sounds

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Tone

Pitch of a word that changes the meaning of the word

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Intonation

Change in pitch that indicates something about the sentence meaning

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Phonological rules

Express the ways in which sounds change predictably in certain environments and describe patterns or types of sound changes - descriptive rather than prescriptive