Smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning.
-results in meaning contrast ->(“Bat” vs “Pat”)
Unit of sound that does not make a difference in meaning.
- do not result in a meaning contrast
- different sounds that correspond to one phoneme
A single aspect or property of a speech sound.
Constriction in the vocal track. -Does not have to be complete. >Complete: e.g., /ptkbdg/ >Partial: e.g., /szfv/ >Minimal: e.g., /lrjw/
-(Some consonants have properties of both
>Laterals: /l/ )
Place of articulation
The place where the constriction occurs.
-English: Labial, Labiodental, Interdental, Alveolar, Alveo-palatal, Velar, Glottal
Lips and teeth
Tongue and teeth
- /ð θ/
Tongue and alveolar ridge
- /z s n d t l ɹ/
Tongue blade and palate
- /ʒ ʃ dʒ tʃ y/
- [check printed images]
Tongue and velum
-/k g ŋ /
The way or “manner” in which the constriction is made.
- English: stop, fricative, affricate, nasal, approximant and lateral.
- Flap/tap is a type of stop
Combination of stop and fricative
complete constriction in oral tract but sound passes through nasal cavity (velum down)
Approximant and Lateral
-Liquids and glides
Presence or absence of vocal fold vibration
Front: Tongue body advanced
Back: Tongue body retracted
High: Tongue is raised toward palate
Low: Tongue body lowered
- : e.g., tense: /i/ vs lax: /I/
Rules for combinations of phonemes
Rules governing how phonemes are mapped onto allophones
Phonological rules example
–Regular past tense form is /d/, but different
allophonic forms are used in different words
–roamed: voiced [d]
–dripped: voiceless [t]
– [d] after a voiced phoneme
– [t] after an unvoiced phoneme
•Unless final phoneme of base word is /t/ or /d/
–then “-ed” /əd/; carded, parted
Children know some phonological rules by age 4. - Wug task (Berko, 1958): Children are shown two nonsense objects and asked to give the plural form. By age 4 years, they reliably produce the right allophone
Variety of consonants and vowel sounds
Developing control over production
End of expansion stage. Longer more complex series of sounds
Canonical or reduplicated babbling
Syllables, repeated syllables (mama, dada)
non-reduplicated or variegated babbling
Series of different syllables. Prosody (intonation contour) more pronounced.
Sequences of non-reduplicated syllables with intonation contour
Around 6 months, sounds show influence of target language.
-Sources: acoustic analyses and adults’ perception
Idiosyncratic sequences of sounds
Mapping acoustic-phonetic information in the speech waveform onto representations of sounds of words in the mental lexicon
Example of holistic representation. Cannot produce the same speech sounds in other words.
Stop (sound substitution)
Replacing fricative/affricate with stop. Place and voicing do not change.
- Church>turt; Shoes>Toot; Sing>Ting
Fronting (sound substitution)
Replace back consonant with front consonant. Manner and voicing do not change.
- Thumb>Fumb; Ship>Sip
Replace a liquid (/l,r/) with glide (/j,w/).
Final consonant deletion: DOG>DAH
Unstressed syllable deletion: giRAFFE>Raffe
Repetition of syllalble
Strategies for producing first words.
>Avoid new words with difficult sounds
>Modify new words to make them fit into a
Produce larger intonational “sentences” at the expense of adult-like segments.
Focus more on individual sounds in shorter utterances.
Ability to think about and reflect on the speech sounds.
> Evidence: Rhymes/alliterations, counting syllables