Flashcards in Physics and Math Chapter 10 & 11: Mathematics and Reasoning about Design and Execution Deck (36):

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## Scientific notation

### [significand] x 10^[Exponent]

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## Significand must be:

### greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10

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## The exponent in scientific notation must be

### an integer

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## Significant figures

### include all nonzero digits and any trailing zeroes in a number with a decimal point

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## Sig figs in addition and subtraction

### reduce the answer to have the same number of decimal places as the number with the fewest decimal places

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## Sig figs in multiplication and division

### reduce the answer to have the same number of sig figs as the number with the fewest number of sig figs

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## Tips for estimating in multiplication and division

###
In multiplication, if one number is rounded up, the other should be rounded down in proportion.

In division, if one number is rounded up, the other should also be rounded up.

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## Exponents

### A notation for repeated multiplication. They may be manipulated mathematically, especially when the bases are the same.

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## Logarithms

### the inverse of exponents and are subject to similar mathematical manipulations.

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## Natural logarithms

### use base e

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## Direct relationships

### as one variable increases, the other increases in proportion

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## Inverse relationships

### as one variable increases, the other decreases in proportion

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## Conversions between metric prefixes require:

### multiplication by corresponding powers of 10.

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## Scientific method:

###
a series of 8 steps for the generation of new knowledge

1. generate a testable hypothesis

2. gather data and resources

3. form a hypothesis

4. collect new data

5. analyze the data

6. interpret the data and existing hypothesis

7. publish

8. verify results

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## FINER method

### assesses the value of a research question on the basis of whether or not it is feasible, interesting, novel, ethical and relevant.

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## Positive controls

### ensure that a change in the depended variable occurs when expected

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## Negative controls

### ensure that no change in the dependent variable occurs when none is expected

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## Accuracy (validity)

### quality of approximating the true value

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## Precision (reliability)

### the quality of being consistent in approximations

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## Cohort studies

### record exposures throughout time and then assess the rate of a certain outcome

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## Cross-sectional studies

### assess both exposure and outcome at the same point in time.

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## Case-control studies

### assess outcome status and then assess for exposure history

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## Hill's criteria

###
- temporality

- strength

- dose-response relationship

- consistency

- plausibility

- consideration of alternate explanations

- experiments

- specificity

- coherence

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## Error

###
bias

confounding

random error

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## Bias

### Systematic and results from problem during data collection.

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## Selection bias

### The sample differs from the population, is most common in human subjects research

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## Detection bias

### arises from educated professionals using their knowledge in an inconsistent way by searching for an outcome disproportionately in certain populations

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## Hawthorne effect

### results from changes in behavior - by the subject, experimenter or both - that occur as a result of the knowledge that the subject is being observed.

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## Confounding

### an error in data analysis that results from a common connection of both the dependent and independent variable to a third variable

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## Belmont Report

###
1. Respect for persons - includes autonomy, informed consent and confidentiality

2. Justice - dictates which study questions are worth pursuing and which subjects to use.

3. Beneficence - do the most good with the least harm

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## Populations

### all of the individuals who share a set of characteristics - sets parameters

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## samples

### subset of a populations that are used to estimate population data

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## Internal validity

### refers to the identification of causality in a study between the independent and dependent variables.

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## External validity

### refers to the ability of a study to be generalized to the population it describes.

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## Statistical significance

### refers to the low likelihood of the experimental findings being due to chance

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