Physics and Math Chapter 10 & 11: Mathematics and Reasoning about Design and Execution Flashcards Preview

MCAT Math and Physics > Physics and Math Chapter 10 & 11: Mathematics and Reasoning about Design and Execution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physics and Math Chapter 10 & 11: Mathematics and Reasoning about Design and Execution Deck (36):
1

Scientific notation

[significand] x 10^[Exponent]

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Significand must be:

greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10

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The exponent in scientific notation must be

an integer

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Significant figures

include all nonzero digits and any trailing zeroes in a number with a decimal point

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Sig figs in addition and subtraction

reduce the answer to have the same number of decimal places as the number with the fewest decimal places

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Sig figs in multiplication and division

reduce the answer to have the same number of sig figs as the number with the fewest number of sig figs

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Tips for estimating in multiplication and division

In multiplication, if one number is rounded up, the other should be rounded down in proportion.
In division, if one number is rounded up, the other should also be rounded up.

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Exponents

A notation for repeated multiplication. They may be manipulated mathematically, especially when the bases are the same.

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Logarithms

the inverse of exponents and are subject to similar mathematical manipulations.

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Natural logarithms

use base e

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Direct relationships

as one variable increases, the other increases in proportion

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Inverse relationships

as one variable increases, the other decreases in proportion

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Conversions between metric prefixes require:

multiplication by corresponding powers of 10.

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Scientific method:

a series of 8 steps for the generation of new knowledge
1. generate a testable hypothesis
2. gather data and resources
3. form a hypothesis
4. collect new data
5. analyze the data
6. interpret the data and existing hypothesis
7. publish
8. verify results

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FINER method

assesses the value of a research question on the basis of whether or not it is feasible, interesting, novel, ethical and relevant.

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Positive controls

ensure that a change in the depended variable occurs when expected

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Negative controls

ensure that no change in the dependent variable occurs when none is expected

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Accuracy (validity)

quality of approximating the true value

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Precision (reliability)

the quality of being consistent in approximations

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Cohort studies

record exposures throughout time and then assess the rate of a certain outcome

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Cross-sectional studies

assess both exposure and outcome at the same point in time.

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Case-control studies

assess outcome status and then assess for exposure history

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Hill's criteria

- temporality
- strength
- dose-response relationship
- consistency
- plausibility
- consideration of alternate explanations
- experiments
- specificity
- coherence

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Error

bias
confounding
random error

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Bias

Systematic and results from problem during data collection.

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Selection bias

The sample differs from the population, is most common in human subjects research

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Detection bias

arises from educated professionals using their knowledge in an inconsistent way by searching for an outcome disproportionately in certain populations

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Hawthorne effect

results from changes in behavior - by the subject, experimenter or both - that occur as a result of the knowledge that the subject is being observed.

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Confounding

an error in data analysis that results from a common connection of both the dependent and independent variable to a third variable

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Belmont Report

1. Respect for persons - includes autonomy, informed consent and confidentiality
2. Justice - dictates which study questions are worth pursuing and which subjects to use.
3. Beneficence - do the most good with the least harm

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Populations

all of the individuals who share a set of characteristics - sets parameters

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samples

subset of a populations that are used to estimate population data

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Internal validity

refers to the identification of causality in a study between the independent and dependent variables.

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External validity

refers to the ability of a study to be generalized to the population it describes.

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Statistical significance

refers to the low likelihood of the experimental findings being due to chance

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Clinical significance

refers to the usefulness or importance of experimental findings to patient care or patient outcomes.