Boyle’s Law

P1V1 = P2V2

Charles’ (Gay Lussac) Law

(V1/T1) = V2/T2

Don’s Law (3rd Gas Law)

P1/T1 = P2/T2

Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT

STP (standard temp & pressure)

T = 273 K , 0* C

P = 760 mm Hg

RTP (room temp & pressure)

T = 293 K , 20* C

P = 760 mm Hg

BTP (body temp & pressure)

T = 310 K , 37* C

P= 760 mm Hg

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure

P(total) = P1 + P2

Therefore, (V(total) / P(total)) = v1/p1 = v2/p2

so, V2/V1 = P2/P1 (or the ratio of partial pressures of volume and partial volume is equal to ratio of total volume and pressure)

Dalton’s Law Example

20.93 kPa O2 + 79.07 kPa N2

100 kPa total

(20.93 % O2 and 79.07% N2)

Amount of O2 L in E cylinder

660 L

PSIg of E cylinder of O2

1900-2000 psi(G)

Amount of N2O L in E cylinder

1600 L

PSIg of E cylinder of N2O

745 psig

van der Waals forces?

(p + (n^2 x a) / V^2) ) (V - nb) = nRT

Water vapor pressure at BTP (37* C)

47 mm Hg

6.3 kPa

Avogadro’s Number

1 mol = 6.02214 x 10^23 molecules

1 mol at STP

22.4 L

1 mol at RTP

24.0 L

1 mol at BTP

25.4 L

Alveolar Oxygen Equation R Value

0.8

Partial pressure of O2 in lungs at room air

Pa O2 = 100 mm Hg

Partial pressure of O2 in lungs on 50% O2

Pa O2 = 300 mm Hg

Partial pressure of O2 in lungs on 100% O2

Pa O2 = 660 mm Hg

V-Q Mismatch in most patients

10%

(10-20%)

Common Pressure Units

1 bar = 1 atm = 14.7 psi = 101.33 kPa = 760 mm Hg

Critical Temperature

Temperature above which liquidification cannot occur however much much pressure is applied

(maximum temp at which liquid can be found)

Critical Pressure

Pressure (vapor pressure) at the critical temperature point

Isotherm

Contains same values of p & v given at same temperature

Critical temp of N2O

36.5* C

A substance that is above its critical temperature at RTP (O2, N2)

A gas

A substance in a gas like state but below its critical temperature at RTP (N2O, CO2, Sevo)

A vapor

How much does 1 L of H2O weigh

1 kg

Filling ratio in US

0.68

Temperature properties

- ) Volume expansion
- ) Conductivity / Resistivity
- ) Emisivity (electromagnetivity)
- ) Index of refraction

Which type of temperature measuring device uses the “Seebeck effect”

Thermocouple

Average temperature under 1 MAC anesthesia

35.5*C

Critical low temp for patient

34* C

What are contributions to heat loss?

Radiation 40%

Convection 30%

Evaporation 20%

Respiration 10% (8% evaporation of water and 2% heating of air)

Define temperature

Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the substance being measured

How is heat energy transferred?

Always transferred from an area of higher temp to an area of lower temp

What is the amount of energy in calories to raise the temp of one gram of a substance by one *C

Specific Heat

How many heat calories is required to liquify ice to water?

100 calories

How many heat calories is required to turn liquid into steam?

540 calories

Formula for F and C

F = (9/5)C + 32

How is heat energy transferred?

Conduction, Convection, Radiation

What is primary mode of heat transfer in solids?

Conduction

What is principal method of heat transfer in liquids and gases?

Convection

How does radiation transfer heat energy?

By electromagnetic waves of thermal energy

Stephon - Boltsman Law

E = e(sigma) (T1^4 - T2^4)

(difference between 4th power of each temperature)

What is the principle way of convecting heat to the patients?

Bairhugger

Shape of a dose response curve?

Sigmoidal

Wash in curve?

Build up exponential (1-e^x)

Growth curve?

Positive exponential (e^x)

Normal distribution curve?

Population response curve (bell curve)

Law that describes the balance of forces within / on a sphere?

Leplace’s Law

P = 2T / R

Laminar flow equation?

Hagen-Poiseuille equation

Q = π P r^4 / 8nl

The Fanning equation describes what?

Q^2 = K P 4π^2 r^5 / pl

Turbulent flow

Reynolds number for laminar flow?

NR < 2000

Reynolds number for turbulent flow?

NR > 2000

What is the Continuity Equation?

v1 x a1 = v2 x a2

Change in P = Q x R

Measurement of flow resistance

What is Ohm’s Law?

V = I x R

Law that describes the energy of a fluid?

Bernoulli’s Equation

E = P + þgh + 1/2 pv^2

Law that relates to the action of surfactant?

Leplace’s Law

(p + (n^2 x a) / V^2) ) (V - nb) = nRT

van der Waals forces