Physio 8- 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physio 8- 14 Deck (90):
1

What is the equation for compliance ?

C= V/P

2

Equation for Cardiac output

CO=HR xSV

3

What is the equation for ejection fraction?

SV/ end diastolic volume

4

What is the normal percent for ejection fraction?

55-60%

5

Cardiac output based on ficks principle

body oxygen consumption/ Pul venous{O}- Pul arterial {O}

6

What are the ways of determining CO/

CO= SV X HR
MAP= CO x TPR
Ficks principle
CO= O consumption/ A-v difference

7

Pul venous is = to

systemic oxygen

8

Pul arterial = to

systemic mixed venous

9

What is the equation for cardiac output of pulmonary circulation

CO= PAP-LAP/ PR

10

What is the relationship between resistance and viscosity ?

greater the viscosity= increased resistance

decreased viscosity = decreased resistance

11

Mean pressure= diastolic + 1/4 pulse pressure is an index of ?

diastolic press is a better index of mean pressure

12

How do tissues control auto regulation?

change flow by changing resistance

13

What controls resting muscles ?

sympathetics

14

What controls exercise muscle ?

Vasodilatory metabolites
autoregulation

15

What is the equation of SV

EDV- ESV

16

What are the systolic disorders?

Aortic Stenosis
Mitral regurgitation

17

What are the diastolic disorder?

Aortic regurgitation
Mitral stenosis

18

What is the equation for alveolar ventilation

Va=(Vt-Vd) x f

19

Equation for alveolar PCO2?

PACO2 Metabolic rate/alveolar ventilation

20

Alveolar gas equation?

PAO2= (Patm-47)FiO2-PaCO2

21

respiratory rate ratio?

CO2 produced/ O2 consumed

22

What are the oxygen hemoglobin binding site?

Hb 4 O2- 100mmHg --> 97 % saturated
Hb 3 O2- 40 mmHg--> 75% saturated
Hb 2 Os- 26mmHg --> 50% saturated
Hb 1 remains attached

23

How is hemoglobin unloaded

the plasma oxygen concentration needs to drop below t the set pressures

24

What shifts the oxygen dissociated curve to the right ?

decreased pH
increased PaCO2
increased 2,3 DPG
increased temperature

25

What shifts the oxygen dissociated curve to the left?

increased pH
decreased PaCO2
decreased 2,3 DPG
decreased temperature

26

Filtration fraction

GFR/RPF

27

Filtered Load

Filtered load= GFR x Plasma concentration

28

Clearance equation

Urine concentration x urine flow / plasma concentration

29

Blood flow of kidney

= plasma flow/ 1-Hct

30

Secreted substances in the kidney are always have ....

greater clearance than GFR

31

Normal anion Gap HARD ASS

H=hyperalimentation
A=Addisons disease
R=Renal Tubular Acidosis
D=Diarrhoea

A=Acetazolamide
S=Spiranolactone
S=Saline Infusion

32

Increased anion gap Mudpiles

M=Methanol
U=Uremia
D=Diabetic ketoacidosis
P=Propylene glycol
I=Iron tables, Isoniazid
L=Lactic acidosi
E=Ethylene glycol
S=Salicylates(late)

33

conn syndrome

hyperaldosteronemia

34

addison syndrome

hypoaldosteronemia

35

amylase breaks down what substance ?

carbohydrates

36

What is the purpose of gastrin ?

increase constriction of LES
increase motility of stomach
stimulate peptides

37

What does CCK do ?

causes contraction of gallbladder
increases bile flow
stimulates secretions from pancreas

38

Where is CCK released from and in response to?

released from I cells in the duodenum
in response to polypeptides & fatty acids

39

What does secretin do ?

increases HCO3 from the pancreas
decreases the motility and the secretion of the stomach

40

Where is secretin released and in response to?

released from duodenum
in response to stomach acid entering the duodenum

41

What is gastric inhibitory peptide

stimulates insulin release

42

Where is GIP released and in response to?

released in the duodenum
in response to fat & carbohydrates

43

What is the sequence of swelling ?

Relaxation of upper esophageal sphincter
primary peristaltic wave
relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter
receptive relaxation

44

What is the defect of myenteric plexus

Achalasia

45

What are the cells of the stomach glands?

mucous neck cells
parietal cells
enterchromaffin like cells
chief cells
D cells

46

What does mucous neck cells secrete ?

mucus (protective lining)
bicarbonate

47

What does parietal cells secede?

Gastric acid
intrinsic factor

48

What does enterchromaffin like cells secrete ?

Histamine

49

What does peptic chief cells secrete ?

pepsinogen
gastric lipase

50

What does D cells secrete ?

somatostatin ( inhibit acid)

51

What do parietal cells need following a meal ?

CO2 --> H and release HCO3 back into the plasma

52

What does pepsionegen require to be functional ?

acidic environment

53

What other enzyme does gastric neck cells secrete ?

Ghrelin - stimulates appetite

54

What is the cephalic phase controlled by ?

sight , snell, taste, thought of food

55

When does the gastric phase begin?

food entering the mouth

56

When does the intestinal phase begin?

when chyme enters the duodenum

57

What decreases gherkin secretions?

Peptide YY from the intestine

58

What is the function of glucagon-like peptide-1 ?

secretes insulin
secreted by the L cells of the ilium and colon in response to chyme

59

The pancreatic enzyme are ..?

alpha amylase : CHO
Lipase:TG to fats
cholesterol esterase : cholesterol hydrolysis
phospholipase A: cleaves fatty acids from phospholipids
proteases: inactive trypsin

60

How is trypsin activated?

enterokinase/ enteropeptidase located in brush border

61

What is the function of c- peptide ?

marker for endogenous insulin secretion

62

What do alpha cells of the pancreas secrete ?

glucagon
located on the periphery

63

Where does glucagon have an affect?

Liver--> glycogenolysis , gluconeogenesis

64

What is Kallmann syndrome ( hypothalamic dysfunction)

embryologic defect of the migration of GnRH neurons

65

What is a pathway in which panhypopituitarism can occur?

Apoplexy--> cerebral hemorrhage-->panhypopitutarism--> decreased T (TSH) A ( ACTH) P (prolactin)

66

What is the factor defect in dwarfism ?

decreased GH & decreased IGF-1

67

What is the factor defect in Laron syndrome ?

Increased GH & decreased IGF-1

68

What terminates the growth period of long bones ?

Androgens & estrogen

69

What is the defect in Acromegaly?

Increased GH that cause increased IGF-1

70

What are the characteristics of acromegaly ?

enlarged hands
enlarged skull
protruding chin
enlarged sell turcica

71

What is the short term regulator of blood pressure ?

ADH

72

What are the two forms of diabetes insidious ?

Nephrogenic
central

73

How can you tell the difference between nephrogenic & central diabetes insidious ?

Desmopressin

74

What is the characteristics of SIADH ?

increased ADH --> increased water loss
Atrial natriuretic peptide--> Na loss

75

What is the treatment for SIADH?

water restriction but not Na restriction

76

What are the layers of the adrenal gland

Glomerulosa
Fasciculata
Reticularis

Medulla

77

What do each layer of the adrenal gland secrete ?

Glomerulosa-aldosterone
Fasciculata-cortisol
Reticularis-androgens

78

What does the medulla secrete?

epinephrine

79

What is the cause of cushing syndrome ?

Glucocorticoids therapy that affect the pituitary gland

80

What is the cause of cushing disease?

secondary hypercorticolism at the pituitary
micro adenoma

81

Albright syndrome ?

pseudohypoparathyroidism
increased PTH but decreased Ca

82

What are the symptoms of albright syndrome?

short stature
obese
short digits
4 & 5 dimpling and loss of knuckles

83

What is the importance of thyroid hormone?

increase beta receptor in heart , skeletal muscle & adipose tissue
increases metabolic rate
converts carotene to vit A

84

Whys is it important to watch thyroid levels in pregnancy ?

b/c placental 5 monodeiodinase can prevent the crossing of thyroid hormones to the fetus thus decrease fetal brain development

85

What are the signs of a fetus that lacks thyroid hormones?

prolonged jaundice
hoarse cry
marked retardation of bone
feeding problems

86

why do boys need estrogen ?

for maturation of sperm

87

What is the first change in the male during puberty?

growth of the testes

88

When do growth spurts occur ?

At the end of puberty

89

What is the first sign of female puberty?

Breast development
but growth spurt is the first thing in female puberty

90

What innervates erection, ejaculation, and emission?

erection- parasympathetic
ejaculation- somatic
emission- sympathetic