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Flashcards in physiology Deck (40):
1

what occurs when local electrical change triggers a wave of excitation that travels along the muscle fiber

conductivity

2

what is the capability of being stretched between contractions

extensibility

3

how does muscle attach to bone

via tendons

4

what is connective tissue around muscle cells

endomysium

5

what is connective tissue around muscle fascicles

perimysium

6

what is connective tissue surrounding entire muscle

epimysium

7

where does regulation of calcium for muscle fibers occur

sarcoplasmic reticulum

8

what is the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

sarcolemma

9

what is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

sarcoplasm

10

what is the filamentous proteins which provide structure and contractile capacity to muscle

myofilaments

11

what are large intracellular bundles of contractile protein myofilaments

myofibrils

12

what are the tubular invaginations of the sarcolemma which penetrate through the cell and emerge on the other side; essential for calcium release from cisternae

transverse tubules

13

what is the thick filament primary made of

myosin

14

what is the thin filament mostly made of

actin

15

describe the protein of myosin

it is a hexametric protein, composed of 2 heavy chain polypeptides and 4 light-chain polypeptides

16

what are the 3 functions of the myosin sub fragment-1(S-1)

attachment site for actin to form actomyosin linkages (cross bridges), binding site for adenosine nucleotides, ATPase enzymatic region for hydrolysis of ATP

17

what is actomyosin complex formation triggered by

calcium

18

what filaments are in the H band

thick

19

what filaments are in the I band

thin

20

what is the segment of the myofibril from one z disc to the next

sarcomere

21

what is the functional contractile unit of the muscle fiber

sarcomere

22

what type of potential occurs in the cell body

local potential (has to do with chemical release)

23

how many neurons is each somatic motor fiber innervated by

one motor neuron

24

how many fibers does one alpha motor neuron have

typically many

25

are alpha motor neurons typically associated with extrafusal or intrafusal fibers

extrafusal fibers

26

are gamma motor neurons typically associated with

intrafusal

27

what is the average motor unit

200 muscle fibers for each motor unit

28

what type of fibers does the muscle spindle receptor have

1a

29

what type of fibers does the golgi tendon organ have

1b

30

what type of receptors does the free nerve endings have

3 or 4

31

what type of receptors are nuclear chain fibers most associated with

steady-state (tonic) receptors

32

what type of receptors are nuclear bag fibers most associated with

adapting (phasic;dynamic) receptors

33

what is the function of muscle spindles

to inform the CNS of muscle length and dynamic movements

34

what part of intrafusal fibers cannot contract

the middle of the fiber because it lacks sarcomeres

35

what is another name for the primary afferent neuron

group 1a

36

what is another name for the secondary afferent neuron

group 2

37

where do gamma motoneurons originate

in the anterior horn of the spinal cord

38

what is the stretch reflex primarily mediated by

the brain

39

what type of reflex is the golgi tendon organ

clasp knife

40

what type of fibers does the golgi tendon organ have

1b