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Flashcards in Physiology and Pharmacology Deck (410)
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1

What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?

Unconscious control system of important bodily functions

2

What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

3

What are the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system responsible for?

Sympathetic - fight or flight response
Parasympathetic - Rest and Digest

4

How does the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems affect heart rate?

Sympathetic - increase heart rate
Parasympathetic - decrease heart rate

5

How does the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems involved in the male sexual function?

Parasympathetic - erection
Sympathetic - ejaculation

6

What are the affects of sympathetic stimulation?

- Pupillary dilation
- Bronchodilation
- Heart rate and blood pressure rises
- Vasoconstriction in skin
- Glycogenolysis
- Metabolism increases

7

What does the sympathetic nervous system target directly?

Adrenal glands

8

Give examples of adrenergic system agonists?

Adrenaline, B2 selective agonists (salbutamol)

9

Give an example of an adrenergic system antagonist?

B1 selective antagonists (Beta blockers)

10

What is the role of adrenaline in the ANS?

- Activates alpha and beta receptors
- Blood pressure increases
- Dilates bronchi

11

What is a clinical use of adrenaline?

used to treatment of anaphylactic shock - Epi-Pen

12

What is the clinical use of B2 selective agonists of the adrenergic system?

Salbutamol
- Treats asthma
- Targets the bronchial smooth muscle

13

What is the clinical use of B1 selective antagonists (Beta - blockers)?

- Used to treat high blood pressure
- Anxiety
- Angina

14

What are the affects of parasympathetic stimulation?

- Pupillary constriction
- Decreases heart rate and blood pressure
- Promotes secretion (salivation) and mobility of digestive tracts
- Facilitates digestion
- Defecation and urination

15

Name some differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system??

Parasympathetic has linger pre-ganglionic fibre, different anatomical location and different post ganglionic neurotransmitter

16

Give an example of a cholinergic agonist?

Muscarine

17

What are the effects of the cholinergic agonist Muscarine?

- Decreases blood pressure
- Increases salivation and sweating
- Abdominal pain

18

What is the clinical use of the cholinergic agonist Muscarine?

Pilocarpine eye drops - treatment for glaucoma

19

Give an example of a cholinergic antagonist?

- Atropine - blocks muscarinic receptors

20

What are the effects of the cholinergic antagonist atropine?

- Inhibition of secretion
- Smooth muscle relaxant
- Pupillary dilation
- Increase body temperature

21

What neurotransmitters are used in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems?

- Adrenaline
- ACh
- ATP
- Nitric Oxide
- VIP
- Substance P

22

What are the clinical uses of nitric oxide?

Viagra

23

What part of the brain controls the ANS?

Hypothalamus

24

Give examples of cortical events that initiate an autonomic response?

- Panic attack - Initiate fight or flight
- Emotional stress/painful stimuli - Vasodialtion and decrease in blood pressure
- Chronic stress - increase in gastric acid secretion

25

Define receptor

Proteins that bind chemical mediators e.g. hormones, neurotransmitters

26

Define agonist

Drugs that bind to a receptor producing a response e.g. morphine

27

Define antagonists

Drugs that prevent the response of agonist -most clinical drugs e.g. atropine

28

Define ligand

Any molecule that binds to the receptor (agonist or antagonist)

29

What are the 4 types of drug receptors?

- Ion channels
- Enymes
- Carriers/Transporters
- Receptors

30

Give an example of drugs that target ion channels?

Apamin
- Stops pain nerve channels from admitting action potentials
- K+ channels booked