Flashcards in Physiology and Pharmacology Deck (410)
What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
Unconscious control system of important bodily functions
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
What are the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system responsible for?
Sympathetic - fight or flight response
Parasympathetic - Rest and Digest
How does the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems affect heart rate?
Sympathetic - increase heart rate
Parasympathetic - decrease heart rate
How does the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems involved in the male sexual function?
Parasympathetic - erection
Sympathetic - ejaculation
What are the affects of sympathetic stimulation?
- Pupillary dilation
- Heart rate and blood pressure rises
- Vasoconstriction in skin
- Metabolism increases
What does the sympathetic nervous system target directly?
Give examples of adrenergic system agonists?
Adrenaline, B2 selective agonists (salbutamol)
Give an example of an adrenergic system antagonist?
B1 selective antagonists (Beta blockers)
What is the role of adrenaline in the ANS?
- Activates alpha and beta receptors
- Blood pressure increases
- Dilates bronchi
What is a clinical use of adrenaline?
used to treatment of anaphylactic shock - Epi-Pen
What is the clinical use of B2 selective agonists of the adrenergic system?
- Treats asthma
- Targets the bronchial smooth muscle
What is the clinical use of B1 selective antagonists (Beta - blockers)?
- Used to treat high blood pressure
What are the affects of parasympathetic stimulation?
- Pupillary constriction
- Decreases heart rate and blood pressure
- Promotes secretion (salivation) and mobility of digestive tracts
- Facilitates digestion
- Defecation and urination
Name some differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system??
Parasympathetic has linger pre-ganglionic fibre, different anatomical location and different post ganglionic neurotransmitter
Give an example of a cholinergic agonist?
What are the effects of the cholinergic agonist Muscarine?
- Decreases blood pressure
- Increases salivation and sweating
- Abdominal pain
What is the clinical use of the cholinergic agonist Muscarine?
Pilocarpine eye drops - treatment for glaucoma
Give an example of a cholinergic antagonist?
- Atropine - blocks muscarinic receptors
What are the effects of the cholinergic antagonist atropine?
- Inhibition of secretion
- Smooth muscle relaxant
- Pupillary dilation
- Increase body temperature
What neurotransmitters are used in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems?
- Nitric Oxide
- Substance P
What are the clinical uses of nitric oxide?
What part of the brain controls the ANS?
Give examples of cortical events that initiate an autonomic response?
- Panic attack - Initiate fight or flight
- Emotional stress/painful stimuli - Vasodialtion and decrease in blood pressure
- Chronic stress - increase in gastric acid secretion
Proteins that bind chemical mediators e.g. hormones, neurotransmitters
Drugs that bind to a receptor producing a response e.g. morphine
Drugs that prevent the response of agonist -most clinical drugs e.g. atropine
Any molecule that binds to the receptor (agonist or antagonist)
What are the 4 types of drug receptors?
- Ion channels