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2

What is the job of the kidneys?

maintain the constancy of the body's internal environment

3

How do they accomplish this?

By regulating the volume and composition of extracellular fluids

4

What do they use to excrete metabolic end products?

Nephrons

5

What else are the kidneys involved with?

regulation of the total amount of many important substances in the extracellular matrix.

6

What are the 7 main functions of the kidneys?

1- regulation of the concentration of numerous ions. 2- excretion of organic compounds. 3- fluid balance. 4- acid-base balance. 5- blood pressure regulation. 6- erythrocyte volume regulation. 7- Vitamin D activation

7

How do the kidneys accomplish #1? (from previous ?)

excretion or preservation of Na, Cl, K, Ca, PO4 - balance their intake, production or excretion through other routes

8

How is #2 accomplished?

1) elimination of substances like urea and creatinine in amounts equaling their production rates. 2)elimination of drugs, FO, and toxins

9

#3?

1)regulate water. 2) regulate osmotic pressure of EC fluids. 3) produce urine

10

#4?

excretion of H+ or HCO2 as needed

11

#5

renin-angiotensin system and renal-body fluid balance system

12

#6>

through formation and release of erythropoetin

13

#7?

vitamin D hydroxylation to render it useful.

14

How much more salt than water do humans typically consume each day?

20-25%

15

How is that excess salt/water disposed of?

Urine

16

What sensors determine how much is to be excreted?

water volume sensors, salt sensors, osmolality sensors,

17

How do these sensors instruct the kidneys on what to do?

via hormones.

18

Where does all the action in the kidney take place?

Nephrons

19

What is a nephron encased in?

a maze of peritubular capillaries

20

What are the components of a nephron?

1) Glomerular capsule, 2) PCT, 3) loop of Henle, 4) DCT, 5) collecting duct

21

What are the components of the vasculature of a nephron?

1) intralobular artery. 2) afferent arteriole 3) glomerulus 4) efferent arteriole 5) peritubular capillaries 6) venule and intralobular vein

22

What are the 3 versions of a nephron?

1) superficial. 2) mid-cortical. 3) juxtamedullary

23

What 3 activities do kidneys engage in?

1) filtration 2) reabsorption 3) secretion

24

Where is the bulk of the work done?

in glomeruli and PCTs

25

What remains in the final end of the tubules?

urine

26

How does blood enter the kidney and nephron?

through Renal artery

27

What does the blood return to circulation through?

renal vein

28

The nephron is said to "clear" what?

the blood of unwanted substances - removes unwanted agents from the plasma

29

What is clearance?

the amount of plasma cleared of a given substance

30

How can glomerular filtration rate be measured?

by looking at the clearance of something that is freely filtered and not reabsorbed at all.

31

How can you measure cortical perfusion?

by looking at the clearance of something that is secreted from the peritubular capillaries into the nephric tubules