Physiopath Exam 1 Unit 1: Basic terms, cellular adaptations, and abnormal physiological processes Flashcards Preview

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principle

-generalization that is accepted as true & that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct
-a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or function of a complex system

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homeostasis

the ability of cells to handle normal physiological demands

2

4 aspects of a disease that form the core of patho

-etiology
-pathogenesis
-morphologic changes
-function derangements and clinical manifestations

3

etiology

cause of

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pathogenesis

series of steps that occur that manifest the disease

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morphologic changes

changes in shape of cell

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function derangements & clinical manifestations

-signs: something that can be seen
-symptoms: something that can be felt

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focal (vs. diffuse)

localized, exact spot

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diffuse (vs. focal)

spread out multiple areas, large area, poorly defined

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eosinophilic

looks red, cytoplasm, eosin-loving

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basophilic

looks blue, nucleus, hemotoxyin-loving

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hyaline ("hyaline change")

tissue starts to look like cartilage

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endogenous

from within

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exogenous

from exterior

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reactions of body to injury and/or stress

-cellular adaptation
-reversible cell injury

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factors affecting ability of a tissue/organ to adapt to an injury/stress

-potential for regeneration
-severity of injury
-duration of injury
-condition of cell
-location of cell
-degree of cell specialization

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labile cells

-continuously renewing cell population
-ex. epithelial cells

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stable cells

-a (potentially) expanding cell population
-increase # if need to
-ex. hepatocytes, anything with "blast"

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permanent cells

-a static cell population
-ex. CNS neurons, cardiac myocytes

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how can cells adapt

-atrophy
-hypertrophy
-hyperplasia
-metaplasia
-dysplasia

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atrophy

-an adaptation to diminished need or resources for a cells activities
-shrinkage of a cell or organ due to the loss of organelles
-changes in production & destruction of cellular constituents

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physiological atrophy

-normal loss of endocrine stimulation
-ex. muscle shrinking with disuse

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pathological atrophy

-diminished blood supply, inadequate nutrition, loss of innervation, abnormal loss of endurance stimulation, decreased workload
-ex. skinny legs in fat hyperlipidic person: common iliac artery occluded: loss of blood supply to legs
-brain w focal atrophy from stroke

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hypertrophy

-increase in cell size and functional capacity
-due to an increase in the production and number of intracellular organelles (increased metabolic demands on the cell/hormonal stimulation)

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physiological hypertrophy

-occurs due to increased functional demand
-ex. muscles getting bigger from working out

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pathological hypertrophy

-goiter: hyperactivity of an endocrine gland
-hormone secreting tumor: hyperactivity of an endocrine gland
-excessive demands on an organ: myocardial hypertrophy due to valve damage/hypertension

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hyperplasia

increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the number of cells (increased functional and/or metabolic demands on the cell or compensatory proliferation)

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physiological hyperplasia

-Lactating hormone stimulation > lactating breast
-increase in RBC's at high altitude

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pathological hyperplasia

-endometriosis: higher conc. endometrium
-psoriasis: skin cells have longer cell life>plaque on skin
-liver regeneration following damage

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metaplasia

-a change where one terminally differentiated cell type is replaced by another terminally differentiated cell type