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Italian Wine Scholar Unit 1: The Wines of Northern Italy > Piemonte > Flashcards

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1

What village is closely associated with the Nascetta grape?

Novello

2

What is the production method for Alta Langa DOCG?

Traditional Method Sparkling

3

What is the approximate alcohol content in Moscato d'Asti DOCG?

5-5.5% ABV

4

What is the minimum percentage of Nebbiolo in Roero DOCG?

95%

5

What is the maximum pressure (atmosphere) of Moscato d'Asti DOCG?

2.5 atmospheres

6

What is the percentage of Cortese required in Gavi DOCG?

100%

7

How many communes can make Barolo DOCG?

11

8

What is the grape Uva Rara called in Northern Piemonte?

Bonarda

9

What is the principal white grape of Caluso?

Erbaluce

10

In which village would you most likely find the grape Pelaverga Piccolo?

Verduno

11

Which grape's name translates as "little sweet one"?

Dolcetto

12

Barbaresco is on which bank of the Tanaro river?

Right

13

The first MGAs created in Piemonte were in which DOCG?

Diano d'Alba DOCG

14

Which clone of Nebbiolo is considered lesser quality and higher yielding?

Bolla

15

The town of Castagnole is associated with what aromatic red grape variety?

Ruchè

16

What is the minimum lees aging for Alta Langa DOCG?

30 months

17

Approximately when did Barolo transition into a dry wine?

Mid 19th century

18

Which river separates the DOCGs of Gattinara and Ghemme?

Sesia

19

Define Sori

A sunny, well-exposed site

20

In Northern Piemonte, which river separates the Vercelli hills from the Novara hills?

Sesia

21

Grignolino gets its name from what?

The high number of pips ("grignole" in Italian)

22

Dogliani DOCG is based on which grape?

Dolcetto

23

Cannubi is a cru in which DOCG?

Barolo DOCG

24

Why is Erbaluce suitable for passito wines?

Its thick skin and high acidity

25

How many MGAs are there in Barolo DOCG?

181

26

How many MGAs are there in Barbaresco DOCG?

66

27

What is the most widely planted white grape in Piemonte?

Moscato Bianco

28

Boca DOC is in which winegrowing region of Piemonte?

Northern Piemonte

29

The Roero and Langhe hills of Piemonte are divided by which river?

Tanaro

30

What are the names of the three villages of Barbaresco?

Barbaresco, Neive, and Treiso

31

Who created Asti Spumante?

Carlo Gancia

32

What is the minimum percentage of Dolcetto in Diano d'Alba DOCG?

100%

33

What is the most widely planted red grape in Piemonte?

Barbera

34

What are the names of the two geologic formations in Barolo DOCG?

Tortonian and Helvetian/Serravallian

35

The Nizza DOCG is based on which grape variety?

Barbera

36

Define Bricco

A superior site on the higher part of the hil

37

Who produced the first commercial Vermouth in 1786

Carpano

38

What is the Nebbiolo-based DOC in Piemonte that borders Valle d'Aosta?

Carema DOC

39

Favorita is genetically identical to which popular grape from Sardegna?

Vermentino

40

Timorasso is grown mostly around what area of Piemonte?

The hills of Tortona

41

Define Barolo Chinato

Aromatized, fortified wine produced using Barolo wine

42

What is the largest subzone of Moscato d'Asti DOCG?

Canelli

43

Why would have Freisa wines traditionally been finished with some residual sugar?

To offset Freisa's characteristic bitterness

44

What is Nebbiolo called in Northern Piemonte?

Spanna

45

What is the principal clone of Nebbiolo?

Lampia

46

What is the minimum percentage of Nebbiolo in Ghemme DOCG?

85%

47

What DOC traditionally adopts the Topia vine training system?

Carema DOC

48

What is the minimum aging for Dogliani Superiore DOCG?

1 year

49

What is the largest region of Italy? What is the second-largest?

Sicily is largest, then Piemonte

50

Why does Pietmonte have a primary place in the modern history of Italy?

It was the center of the industrial revolution and led the unification movement, both in the 19th century

51

How many DOCs are there in Piemonte?

42 (as of 2017)

52

How many DOCGs are there in Piemonte

17 (as of 2017)

53

How many IGTs are there in Piemonte?

0

54

What are some of the markers of Piemonte's high-quality wines?

Some of the lowest yields annually, extensive documenting of sites and single vineyards, most (with Toscana) top wine awards annually

55

Why is Piemonte considered a conservative, traditional region?

Opposition to modern winemaking techniques in traditional growing areas, insignificance of international varieties

56

What is the significance of cucina Piemontese?

Means Piemontese cuisine, local wines are reliably perfect with local food

57

Who were the first people to inhabit Piemonte? Who taught them viticulture?

The Taurini and Salassi tribes, who learned viticulture from the Etruscans

58

When was Piemonte conquered by Rome?

100 BC, hundreds of years after Rome had risen to prominence in the rest of Italy

59

Who were the Lombards?

A tribe that conquered Piemonte in the 6th century CE and divided it up into duchies and counties

60

Who incorporated Piemonte into the Holy Roman Empire?

Charlemagne and the Franks

61

Why did viticulture flourish in Piemonte during the Middle Ages?

Catholic monks grew grapes and made wine

62

What happened in 1045 that affected Piemonte?

Count of Savoy Oddone married Adelaide of Susa, Marquise of Torino, bringing Piemonte under the control of the House of Savoy, later the Kingdom of Sardegna

63

Who was Prime Minister Cavour?

PM of the Kingdom of Sardegna after Napoleon's fall, led the Risorgimento

64

Where in Piemonte were viticultural and enological stations founded in 1872?

Asti and Gattinara

65

What happened to viticulture in Piemonte during Italy's industrial revolution? What was the consequence of this?

Oidum, then phylloxera and downy mildew, caused major damage to vines. leading many growers to abandon vineyards for good-paying industrial jobs

66

Where is Piemonte located? What is the capital?

"At the foot of the mountain". Apennines and Alps separate Piemonte from Liguria and France to the south, Alps form the border with France to the west and Valle d'Aosta and Switzerland to the north. Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna to the east. Piemonte is landlocked. Capitol is Torino.

67

Piemonte's topography can be loosely described as a series of rings. What are they?

Mountainous outer (except for in the east), hilly transitional, plains in the middle

68

What percentage of Piemonte is comprised of mountains?

43%

69

What is the largest lake in Piemonte?

Lake Maggiore, on the northeastern border (shared with Lombardia)

70

What expected topographical feature is missing in western Piemonte?

The intermediate Prealps separating the Alps proper from the plains

71

What percentage of Piemonte is comprised of hills?

30%

72

Where are the great majority of Piemonte's winegrowing districts located?

The "ring" of hills

73

What is significant about the aspect of Piemonte's hills?

They offer sun exposure in all directions, allowing each variety to be planted according to its ripening requirements

74

What are the important named hill clusters in Piemonte? Which is the largest?

Monferrato (largest) in Asti and Alessandria, Langhe and Roero in Cuneo, Novara and Verceli in the provinces of the same names, and Tortona (Colli Tortonesi) in Alessandria

75

What percentage of Piemonte are plains? Where are they located?

27%, in the east (corresponding to the upper Po Valley)

76

Where does the Po River rise? Where does it flow?

Rises in the Western Alps of Piemonte and centrally bisects the region flowing east, eventually emptying in the Adriatic

77

Which tributaries of the Po flow south? From where do they rise?

Ticino, Sesia, Dora Baltea, Dora Riparia, rising in the Northern and Western Alps

78

Which tributaries of the Po flow north? From where do they rise?

Tanaro and Bormida, rising in the Ligurian Apennines

79

What is the climate of Piemonte?

Continental with significant local variation

80

Why is rainfall limited in the Piemonte?

Rain shadow from the Alps and Apennines

81

What amount of Piemonte's area under vine is red?

2/3

82

What is the most widely planted grape in Piemonte?

Barbera

83

In which provinces is the majority of Barbera planted in Piemonte?

Asti and Alessandria

84

How many DOCGs are dedicated to Dolcetto in Piemonte? How many DOCs?

3 DOCGs, 4 DOCs

85

What is the most-planted white variety in Piemonte?

Moscato Bianco, second-most planted in Piemonte overall

86

70% of all plantings in Piemonte are to which grapes?

Barbera, Moscato Bianco, Dolcetto, and Nebbiolo

87

What percentage of plantings in Piemonte are to international varieties? Which is the most important?

Less than 4%, Chardonnay is the most important

88

When did Barbera rise to prominence in Piemonte, and why?

When replanting after phylloxera, because it is both productive and versatile

89

What are the typical properties of Barbera wines?

High acid even when fully ripe, deep color, bright red cherry fruit, low tannin. Traditional wines are light and simple, high-quality producers make more powerful wines with significant use of new oak for tannin and complexity

90

Where are most Dolcetto plantings in the Piemonte?

Langhe and southern Monferatto

91

Why is Dolcetto's ripening window prized in the Piemonte?

It is early-ripening and will do so even on high, cool sites, which allows the wine to be made and released earlier than Nebbiolo and Barbera, bringing in revenue while those wines are still in the cellar

92

What are the typical properties of Dolcetto wines?

Deep color, grapey and black fruit aromas, low acid, noticeable tannin. Traditionally simple and easy-drinking, some producers make more structured, full-bodied expressions

93

What traits make Nebbiolo difficult to grow?

It is early-budding, very late-ripening, highly site-sensitive (in Piemonte must be on well-exposed, south-facing slopes), and soil-sensitive (best in calcareous marls)

94

What are the typical properties of Nebbiolo wines?

Pale ruby-garnet in youth, orange with age. Aromas of cherry, rose, violet, tar, licorice, underbrush. High acid, tannin, alcohol, and extract. Ageworthy and noble

95

What is Lampia?

The principal biotype of Nebbiolo, considered the best clone because of its reliability

96

What is Michet?

A virused form of Lampia Nebbiolo

97

What is Bolla?

A lesser-quality, high-yielding biotype of Nebbiolo

98

Describe the Rosé biotype of Nebbiolo

Actually a distinct variety, lighter in color and acidity but higher in alcohol than Lampia

99

What are the typical properties of Freisa wines?

Light-colored, high in acid and tannin, aromas of strawberry and raspberry, usually lightly bitter and with some residual sugar. Can be made still, frizzante, and spumante

100

Where is most Freisa grown in the Piemonte?

Asti, Torino, and Langhe

101

What are the typical properties of Grignolino wines?

Pale red or pink, delicate floral, red berry, pepper, and herbal aromas, light-bodied, high acid and tannin, moderate alcohol

102

What are the typical properties of Brachetto wines?

Aromatic reds, usually sweet and frizzante or spumante, raspberry and strawberry aromas. Think of it as a red equivalent to Moscato Bianco

103

What are the typical properties of Ruchè wines?

Highly-perfumed reds from Castagnole with rose, red fruit, and spice aromas

104

What is the Piemontese name for Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains?

Moscato Bianco

105

What is the world's most popular sweet sparkling wine?

Asti Spumante

106

What is most Moscato Bianco grown in Piemonte used for?

Asti Spumante

107

What is the primary challenge of growing Cortese in Piemonte?

It is highly productive and requires tight yield controls to balance its high acid with sufficient body and fruit

108

What are the typical properties of Cortese wines? From where do the best examples come?

Refreshing acidity, minerality, lemon zest aromas and flavors. Best from Gavi

109

To where is Arneis native?

The Roero hills

110

Which producers saved Arneis from extinction?

Bruno Giacosa and Vietti

111

What is Nebbiolo Bianco a synonym for?

Arneis

112

What are the typical properties of Arneis wines?

Medium- to full-bodied whites, subtle but complex aromas of white flowers, stone fruit, and ripe pear

113

Where is Erbaluce grown in the Piemonte?

Caluso and the Canavese district of Northern Piemonte

114

What are the typical properties of Erbaluce wines?

Thick-skinned and very high in acid, traditionally used for complex passitos. Dry examples have floral, citrus, and apple aromas

115

Where is most Timorasso planted in the Piemonte?

The hills of Tortona in the southeastern corner of Piemonte

116

Who saved Timorasso from extinction?

Walter Massa

117

What are the typical properties of Timorasso wines?

Intensely mineral, aromas of florals and citrus, often with honey. Creamy palate despite high acidity. Ageworthy and best with some years in bottle

118

What percentage of Piemonte's total production is red?

Over 60%

119

After red wines, what makes up the majority of Piemonte's wine production?

Sparkling wines made from Moscato Bianco

120

What percentage of Piemonte's production is DOCG or DOC?

Almost 90%

121

What are the most important centers of wine production in Piemonte?

The cities of Asti and Alba

122

Who grows most of the grapes for Asti sparkling and Vermouth wines?

Independent growers who sell to large producers or cooperatives

123

Name the major sub-regions of Piemonte

Northern Piemonte, Western Piemonte / Torino Hills, Alba, and Monferrato

124

What is Spanna?

Northern Piemontese name for Nebbiolo

125

What is the primary grape of Northern Piemonte?

Nebbiolo (Spanna)

126

Name the wine districts of Northern Piemonte

Novara / Vercelli Hills and Canavese

127

Where are the Novara and Vercelli Hills? What are the prestigious appellations there?

North of the cities of Novara and Vercelli in Northern Piemonte, on the border with Lombardia. Home to Gattinara DOCG and Ghemme DOCG

128

Where is Canavese? What are the prestigious appellations there?

Around Ivrea, north of Torino, home to Erbaluce di Caluso DOCG and Carema DOC

129

Describe the soil composition of the Novara and Vercelli Hills

Retreating glaciers left a series of moraines that link the Alps with the plains. Soils are acidic and varied, with sand, red, iron-rich clay, and gravel over volcanic subsoils of igneous rock and granite

130

What separates Novara from Vercelli?

The Sesia river separates Vercelli in the west from Novara in the east

131

From west to east, name the appellations of Vercelli

Lessona DOC, Bramaterra DOC, Gattinara DOCG

132

From west to east, name the appellations of Novara

Boca DOC, Ghemme DOCG, Sizzano DOC, and Fara DOC

133

What are the catch-all appellations of Novara and Vercelli Hills?

Coste Della Sesia DOC (west of the Sesia) and Colline Novaresi (east of the Sesia)

134

Why do Nebbiolo wines from Northern Piemonte have more acidity than other expressions?

Moderating influences of Lake Maggiore and Lake Orta, and cool air descending from the Alps

135

Why is Nebbiolo traditionally blended in the Novara and Vercelli Hills?

It is difficult for Nebbiolo to fully ripen in the cool environment, so it must be softened with other varieties

136

How are most vines trained in the Novara and Vercelli Hills?

Guyot

137

Which is the best, and longest-lived, of the Northern Piemontese Nebbiolo appellations?

Gattinara DOCG

138

Describe the soils of Gattinara DOCG

Decomposed volcanic porphyritic sub-soil

139

To what aspect must vines be planted in Gattinara DOCG?

West or southwest (optimal sun exposure)

140

What is the minimum percentage of Nebbiolo in Gattinara DOCG? What are its blending partners?

90% Nebbiolo, up to 10% Vespolina and/or Uva Rara, Vespolina no more than 4%

141

What are the aging requirements for Gattinara DOCG?

35 months of aging, 24 in oak. Riservas must be aged for 47 months, at least 36 months in oak

142

How do Gattinara DOCG Nebbiolo differ from Nebbiolo from the Langhe?

Lighter color, higher acid, lower alcohol, lighter body

143

Where is Ghemme DOCG located?

Opposite Gattinara DOCG, on the eastern side of the Sesia river in Northern Piemonte

144

Where is Gattinara DOCG located?

Opposite Ghemme DOCG, on the western side of the Sesia river in Northern Piemonte

145

What are the requirements for Ghemme DOCG?

85% Nebbiolo, up to 15% Vespolina and/or Uva Rava, aged for at least 34 months, minimum 18 in oak. Riservas age for 46 months, minimum 24 in oak

146

What is the traditional blending formula for Northern Piemontese red?

Nebbiolo with some Vespolina and/or Uva Rara

147

Which minor Northern Piemontese Nebbiolo appellation can incorporate 100% Nebbiolo?

Lessona DOC

148

What distinguishes Lessona DOC's flavor profile from other Northern Piemontese expressions?

Savory and mineral character

149

What is the soil like in Lessona DOC?

Mineral-rich, acidic sands over subsoils of marine deposits

150

What are the blending requirements for Bramaterra DOC? What are the soils like there?

50-80% Nebbiolo, up to 30% Croatina, up to 20% Vespolina and/or Uva Rara. Soils are volcanic and marine sands.

151

What are the blending requirements for Boca DOC? What are the soils like there?

70-90% Nebbiolo, up to 30% Vespolina and/or Uva Rara. Soils are volcanic.

152

Describe the wines of Valli Ossolane DOC

There are three: a Nebbiolo-based red blend, a Chardonnay-based white blend, and a varietal Nebbiolo

153

Describe the wines of Colline Novaresi DOC

A catchall appellation for the eastern bank of the Sesia river in Northern Piemonte

154

Describe the wines of Coste della Sesia DOC

A catchall appellation for the western bank of the Sesia river in Northern Piemonte

155

Where is the Canavese located?

Northwestern Piemonte, on the border of Valle d'Aosta, at the base of the Alps

156

Describe the topography of Canavese

Vineyards are located in the Ivrea glacial moraine basin. The Dora Baltea river bisects the region north to south, and the Alps both block cold winds and encourage air circulation (providing wide diurnal temperature swings)

157

What is vino di montagna?

The historically important Nebbiolo-based wine from Carema DOC

158

Where is Carema DOC located, and what is significant about its location?

In northern Canavese, on the border with Valle d'Aosta; Carema DOC's climate and topography have more in common with Valle d'Aosta than with the rest of Piemonte

159

Describe the wines of Carema DOC

At least 85% Nebbiolo, aged for at least 2 years, at least 1 in oak. Riserva aged 3 years, at least 1 in oak. Fragrant and delicate, high acid, high minerality, light body

160

Where is Erbaluce di Caluso DOCG located?

Southeast of Carema DOC, in central Canavese

161

What types of wine are made in Erbaluce di Caluso DOCG?

Dry white, traditional-method sparkling, passito dessert

162

Describe the passito sweet wines of Erbaluce di Caluso DOCG

Erbaluce's high acidity ensures balanced sweet wines. Two styles are made, a complex traditional amber style with some oxidation and a modern, golden, fruit-forward style with some oak. Minimum three years aging, four for riservas

163

Describe dry white Erbaluce di Caluso DOCG

High acid, high minerality, floral (acacia and hawthorn), citrus, apple, lightly herbal. Warm vintages required for proper balance

164

What is the fallback appellation of the Canavese?

Canavese DOC

165

From north to south, name the appellations of Western Piemonte and the type of wine made there

Valsusa DOC, Pinerolese DOC, Colline Saluzzesi DOC; all mostly produce local red blends

166

Where is the Torino Hills winegrowing area located? What are the soils like there?

East of Torino, north of the Langhe, on the right bank of the Po in Piemonte. Soils are calcareous marl

167

What are the appellations of the Torino Hills, and what types of wine do they produce?

Collina Torinese DOC (varietal reds from local grapes) and Freisa di Chieri DOC (red blends from 90% Freisa made dry, sweet, frizzante, and spumante)

168

Where is the Alba sub-region located?

Southern Piemonte, in eastern Cuneo province, mostly on the right bank of the Tanaro river

169

What separates the Langhe from the Roero? What are the topographical differences between the two?

The Tanaro flows from the Western Appenines to the Po, and separates the Roero (left bank/north) from the Langhe (right bank/south). The Roero hills are low-rising and steep-sloped, the Langhe hills are higher in elevation with more gradual slopes

170

Of which winegrowing district is Alba traditionally considered a part?

The Langhe

171

Describe the climate of Alba and the topographical features affecting it

Continental, with some moderating influence from the Tanaro river, warm breezes from the Ligurian Sea, and cool breezes from the Alps (keeping the air circulating and diurnal swings wide)

172

Describe the soils of the Langhe

Compact calcareous marls (terre bianchi) and sandstone; few stones means erosion can be an issue

173

Describe the soils of Roero

Softer clay (than the Langhe), sand, and marine fossils; few stones means erosion can be an issue

174

What factors create an ideal macroclimate for viticulture in the Langhe and Roero?

Variations in soil composition, moderate continental climate, south-facing slopes

175

Describe viticulture in the Langhe and Roero

Almost universally Guyot or cordon spur-pruned systems, pruning and harvesting carried out by hand

176

What differentiates Nebbiolo from the Langhe and Roero from those of Northern Piemonte?

Milder conditions lead to more consistent ripening, resulting in wines with fuller body and higher alcohol, sometimes with less acidity

177

How many appellations are there in the Langhe and Roero?

12

178

What are the classic grapes of the Langhe and Roero?

Nebbiolo, Barbera, and Dolcetto

179

What similarities does the Langhe share with Burgundy?

Growers place high importance on village origin, single-vineyard wines, and estate bottling. Vineyards in both areas are planted on slopes divided into small parcels and owned by multiple growers. Heavy emphasis on terroir

180

How are the Langhe Hills divided, and why? Where is the line of demarcation?

Alta Langa and Bassa Langa, referencing the altitude of the hills which climb as they spread south. Monforte d'Alba is the point of separation

181

What moderates the climate of the Langhe Hills?

The Tanaro River and its accompanying air currents

182

What site-selection strategy is employed when planting vines in the Langhe Hills?

Nebbiolo planted to the best sites (in the middle of south-facing slopes), Barbera and Dolcetto to the top and bottom of the hills and on east- and west-facing aspects. Dolcetto in the highest, coolest spots

183

Which appellation is considered to deliver the highest and most powerful expression of Nebbiolo?

Barolo DOCG

184

What significance do Camillo Benso and Paolo Francesco Staglieno have to Barolo?

They led to its wines being fermented down to dryness (Benso was Count of Cavour, Staglieno his enologist)

185

Why were Barolo historically off-dry?

Most likely due to Nebbiolo's high sugar content and late harvest, coupled with stuck fermentations from early winter cold

186

Who brought Barolo to international acclaim?

Giulia Falletti, Marquise of Barolo, who made dry wines on her estate and introduced them to the Torino aristocracy, which then spread the wine throughout Europe

187

What does "re dei vini e vino dei re" mean?

"King of wines and wine of kings", refers to Barolo DOCG

188

Where is Barolo DOCG located?

In northwestern Langhe, on the right bank of the Tanaro River where it makes a 90 degree turn east. Alba is to the northeast and separates Barolo DOCG from Barbaresco DOCG

189

What is the composition of Barolo?

100% Nebbiolo from strictly delimited hills around 11 authorized towns

190

Which entire communes are allowed to produce Barolo?

3: Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, and Serralunga d'Alba

191

Which communes are partially authorized to produce Barolo?

8: Monforte d'Alba, La Morra, Novello, Verduno, Grinzane Cavour, Diano d'Alba, Cherasco, and Roddi

192

90% of Barolo DOCG production comes from which villages?

5: La Morra, Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, Monforte d'Alba, and Serralunga d'Alba

193

Name the communes authorized for Barolo DOCG

11: Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, Serralunga d'Alba, Monforte d'Alba, La Morra, Novello, Verduno, Grinzane Cavour, Diano d'Alba, Cherasco, and Roddi

194

At what elevation does the disciplinaire allow Barolo DOCG to be planted? How does this differ from actual vineyard practice?

170-540 M, but in practice, Nebbiolo is planted at the lower end of the permitted range to ensure full ripeness

195

To what formation do most Barolo soils belong?

The Tortonian

196

What is the composition of Tortonian soil? Where is it found in Barolo DOCG? How does it affect flavor profile?

Calcareous marls that are younger and more compact than neighboring Serravallian. Found in La Morra and Barolo, throughout the western half of Barolo DOCG, and in pockets in the east. Gives wines that are more perfumed, elegant, fruit-forward, and softer/earlier-drinking

197

What is the composition of Serravallian soil? Where is it found in Barolo DOCG? How does it affect flavor profile?

Sandstone, silty marl, and sand that are older, less compact, and less fertile than neighboring Tortonian. Found in Monforte d'Alba, Serralunga d'Alba, and part of Castiglione Falletto. Gives wines that have more power, depth, body, and structure, and are very long-lived

198

What was the traditional role of the commercianti in Barolo DOCG?

Commercianti were merchants who blended wines from different vineyards and communes t maintain a consistent style with minimal vintage variation

199

When did estate bottling become widespread in Barolo DOCG?

The 1960s/1970s

200

What was the effect of estate bottling becoming popular in Barolo DOCG?

Led to more single-vineyard wines and, consequently, the rise of Barolo crus

201

What is the traditional identifier of superior Barolo sites?

The sites where the snow melts first

202

How many MGAs are there for Barolo DOCG? How many are communal?

181 MGAs, 11 are communal

203

Name the most widely-known Barolo DOCG MGAs

Brunate, Bussia, Cannubi, Cerequio, Francia, Ginestra, Monprivato, Rocche dell'Annunziata, Rocche di Castiglione, Sarmass, Vigna Rionda, Villero

204

What techniques are the hallmarks of traditional Barolo production? Why were they employed?

Macerations of 1-2 months and extended aging (4+ years) in Slovenian oak or chestnut botte. Long macerations for structure and longevity, wood aging to soften tannin

205

Who were the Barolo boys?

Up-and-coming Barolo producers in the early 1980s who strongly believed in producing more modern, approachable wines

206

What are the hallmarks of the 'modern' Barolo style?

Softer tannin, more concentration, noticeable oak. Fruit-driven and approachable on release

207

What are the hallmarks of present-day Barolo production?

Both traditional and modern techniques used to emphasize the varietal character of Nebbiolo while softening its acid and tannin structures

208

What are the aging requirements for Barolo DOCG?

Minimum 38 months, 18 in oak. Riservas 62 months, 18 in oak

209

Who founded the first cooperative in Barbaresco? When?

Domizio Cavazza in 1894

210

Who is credited with bringing Barbaresco to international acclaim?

Angelo Gaja

211

Where is Barbaresco DOCG located?

On the right bank of the Tanaro River, east and northeast of Alba, around the communes of Barbaresco, Neive, Treiso, and a section of San Rocco Seno d'Elvio

212

Which commune accounts for the majority of Barbaresco DOCG production?

Barbaresco

213

How are Nebbiolo vines planted in Barbaresco? How does this compare to Barolo?

In the middle of south-facing slopes (lower than in Barolo)

214

Describe the soils of Barbaresco

Mostly Tortonian (calcareous marls) with alternating layers of sand

215

What effect does Barbaresco DOCG's proximity to the Tanaro have on its wines?

Barbaresco is closer to the river than Barolo, making the area slightly warmer and the grapes slightly earlier-ripening

216

Why is there less flavor variation between Barbaresco sites than those in Barolo?

The soils are homogenous in Barbaresco and varied in Barolo

217

What are the aging requirements of Barbaresco DOCG?

26 months, 9 in oak. Riservas must be aged 50 months, 9 in oak.

218

On paper, how does the style of Barbaresco differ from that of Barolo?

Less aging and lower final alcohol

219

How many MGAs are authorized for Barbaresco DOCG?

66 (as of 2017)

220

Name some of the most important MGAs in Barbaresco DOCG

Asili, Basarin, Gallina, Martinenga, Montefico, Montestefano, Ovello, Pajore, Pora, and Rabaja

221

How did the production and aging routine of Barbaresco change in the 1970s?

Shorter macerations and aging times in new, small French oak barrels

222

When did Barolo and Barbaresco become DOCs?

1966

223

When were Barolo and Barbaresco elevated to DOCGs?

1980

224

How much more area under vine is there in Barolo than Barbaresco?

Three times

225

How much more wine is produced in Barolo than in Barbaresco?

Three times

226

What area does Nebbiolo d'Alba DOC cover?

30 communes on both banks of the Tanaro, including Roero, Alba, and the areas between Barolo and Barbaresco. Barolo and Barbaresco proper are excluded

227

If Barolo or Barbaresco producers wish to declassify their Nebbiolo-based wines, what appellation must they use?

Langhe Nebbiolo DOC

228

What style of wine is made in Alba DOC?

A blend of 70-85% Nebbiolo and 15-30% Barbera

229

Which appellation area in Piemonte produces the most Dolcetto?

Dolcetto d'Alba DOC

230

Where is Dogliani DOCG located? What are the soils like there?

South of Barolo in southwestern Langhe. The Tanaro River runs through the entire length of the appellation south to north, and vineyards are planted on both banks. The soils are layers of sandstone and marl

231

Prior to 2011, what was the name of Dogliani DOCG?

Dolcetto di Dogliani DOCG

232

What is Dogliani DOCG superiore?

Dogliani DOCG with lower yields, higher potential alcohol, and aged for one year

233

Where is Diano d'Alba DOCG? What are the soils like there?

Hilltop village south of Alba and east of Barolo. The soils are white sandstone

234

How many MGAs are there in Diano d'Alba DOCG?

76

235

Where is Dolcetto d'Alba located?

On the right bank of the Tanaro River and encompasses the entire Lower Langhe, including Barolo, Barbaresco, and the land between them

236

Describe the soils of Dolcetto d'Alba DOC

Layers of calcareous marl, sandstone, and sand

237

Where is Barbera d'Alba DOC located?

Both sides of the Tanaro River. On the right bank, it is the entire Lower Langhe; on the left, it covers the Roero Hills

238

What boundary does Dogliani DOCG mark?

The line between the Upper and Lower Langhe

239

Describe the soils of Barbera d'Alba DOC and how planting sites are selected

Calcareous marls, sandstone, and sand (remember the DOC covers Barolo and Barbaresco so same soils). Barbera is usually planted on sites where Nebbiolo is not capable of ripening

240

What are the disciplinaire requirements of Barbera d'Alba DOC?

85% Barbera, up to 15% Nebbiolo (though usually 100% Barbera). Superiore must be aged 12 months before release, minimum 4 in oak

241

What are the differences between Barbera d'Alba DOC from the left and right banks of the Tanaro?

Left bank more approachable and refined, right bank bigger, richer, more structured, and more likely to see oak

242

What does it mean for Barbera d'Alba to baroleggia?

The Barbera takes on some of the flavors of Barolo (earth, leather, tobacco) with bottle age

243

What is the catch-all appellation of the Langhe? What area does it cover?

Langhe DOC, covering Langhe, Roero, and 90 communes in Cuneo

244

Why was Langhe DOC introduced?

To allow for the blending of quality grapes across different areas of Langhe and Roero, and to permit native and international grapes not otherwise allowed

245

Prior to the introduction of Langhe DOC, what would wines have to be declassified down to?

Vino da Tavola (no IGT in Piemonte)

246

What is the minimum percentage of the named grape for varietal Langhe DOC?

85%

247

What do Barolo and Barbaresco producers use Langhe Nebbiolo DOC for?

Releasing younger, more approachable Nebbiolo expressions without lengthy aging requirements, or producing wines with less restrictive rules

248

What are blends called under Langhe DOC?

Rosso, bianco, rosato, pasito

249

What is the subzone of Langhe DOC? What type of wine is produced there?

Nascetta del Comune di Novello, made from Nascetta. Dry or sweet pasito, with refreshing structure, aromatic herbs, citrus, tropical fruit, honey and balsamic with age

250

Describe the wines of Verduno DOC

Small appellation focused on the local Pelaverga Piccolo. Pale ruby, fresh acidity, floral and fruit, green and white pepper

251

What area is covered by Alta Langa DOCG?

Almost all of the Langhe, plus parts of Asti and Alessandria

252

What are the production specifications for Alta Langa DOCG?

Traditional method sparkling made from 90-100% Pinot Nero and/or Chardonnay (typically PN). Bianco and rosato allowed. 30 months aging on lees, 36 months for riservas, must be vintage-dated

253

Where are the Roero Hills located? What is the most important town there?

North of Alba, on the left bank of the Tanaro, between Carmagnola to the west and Asti to the east, opposite from Barolo and Barbaresco. Canale is the most important town.

254

How do the Roero Hills differ from those of the Langhe? What is their most important topographical feature? What effect does this have on harvest?

They are lower in altitude but have a steeper grade (vineyard work must be done by hand). Rocky cliffs called rocche cut along the hills southwest to northeast and mark the boundary between alluvial soils to the west and sandy soils to the east-central (where the vineyards are planted)

255

Describe the soils of the Roero Hills

Marine origin, composed of sand, sandstone, and marl. Poor in organic matter, rich in minerals

256

What effect does high sand content have on an overall soil mix?

High sand content makes the overall soil light, loose, soft, and permeable

257

What is significant about the annual rainfall of the Roero Hills?

It is one of the lowest in southern Piemonte, and what rain does fall quickly drains in the sandy soil, necessitating wells and irrigation

258

What are the main varieties grown in the Roero Hills?

Arneis, Nebbiolo, Barbera, and Favorita

259

Which Langhe appellations include the Roero Hills?

Barbera d'Alba DOC, Nebbiolo d'Alba DOC, Langhe DOC, and Alba DOC

260

What appellation is used for Favorita in the Roero Hills?

Langhe Favorita DOC

261

What appellation is used for most Nebbiolo grown in the Roero Hills?

Roero DOCG

262

What appellation is used for most Arneis grown in the Roero Hills?

Roero Arneis DOCG

263

How many MGAs are there in Roero DOCG? How many of them are communal?

153 MGAs, 18 are communal

264

Where in Roero DOCG does Nebbiolo perform well?

On south-facing, sunny sites with poor, sandy soils

265

What is the traditional blending partner of Nebbiolo in Roero DOCG? Is it still permissible?

Arneis, but no longer allowed

266

How does Nebbiolo production in Roero DOCG differ from that of the Langhe? How do the resulting wines differ from those of the Langhe?

Short macerations and short periods of aging in small oak barrels. No traditionalist vs modern conflict as in Barolo and Barbaresco. Lighter, softer, less tannic, more perfumed

267

What are the production specifications for Roero DOCG?

Minimum 95% Nebbiolo, aged for at least 20 months, at least 6 in oak. Riservas aged minimum 32 months, at least 6 in oak

268

What are the production specifications for Roero Arneis DOCG?

Dry white from minimum 95% Arneis. Riservas must be aged for at least 16 months, with no oak requirement (oak is uncommon). Spumante is also permitted

269

Where is Monferrato located, and how is it divided?

Southeastern Piemonte within Asti and Alessandria. Divided into 3 main areas: Basso Monferrato, Monferrato Astigiano, and Alto Monferrato

270

Where is Basso Monferrato located?

Northeastern Monferrato, covering the low hills sloping toward the Po plain to the north

271

Where is Monferrato Astigiano located?

Western Monferrato, north and south of Asti, bisected by the Tanaro

272

Where is Alto Monferrato located?

Southeastern Monferrato, where the hills increase in elevation and meet the Ligurian Apennines

273

Monferrato is considered the traditional home of which Piemontese grapes?

Barbera, Grignolino, and Cortese

274

What is the climate of Monferrato?

Continental

275

Name the different soil types found in Monferrato

Terre Bianche, Sabbie Astiane, and Terre Rosse

276

What is Terre Bianche? Where is it found?

Piemontese soil type composed of alternating layers of sand, sandstone, and white calcareous marl. Shallow, rich in marine fossils, and high in calcium carbonate. Found south of Asti and in Monferrato

277

What is Sabbie Astiane? Where is it found?

Sandy soils found along both banks of the Tanaro in central Monferrato Astigiano. Poor water retention often leads to stress on the vines

278

What is Terre Rosse? Where is it found?

Deep clay soils rich in iron and magnesium found in Alto Monferrato

279

What are infernotti?

Underground cellars dug into the marly-sandstone soils of Monferrato prized for high humidity and consistently cool temperatures. Used to age the best bottles.

280

What is the highest-volume red appellation in Piemonte?

Barbera d'Astia DOCG

281

Describe the soils of Barbera d'Asti DOCG

Calcareous marls and sabbie astiane north of Asti, terre bianche south of Asti

282

How are vines trained in Monferrato?

Guyot or cordon

283

What is significant about how Barbera is planted in Monferrato vs the Langhe?

Barbera is given the best vineyard sites in Monferrato, whereas in Langhe the best sites always go to Nebbiolo

284

What are the production specifications for Barbera d'Asti DOCG?

Minimum 90% Barbera, aged at least 4 months. Superiore requires special fruit selection, at least 14 months aging, at least 6 months in oak

285

What style of Babera is made in Barbera d'Asti DOCG?

Most is simple table winemade in stainless. More ambitious expressions are matured large neutral botte

286

What winemaking decision is an indicator of "modern" Barbera?

Use of new small barrels for tannin, richer texture, and oak flavor

287

How does Barbera d'Asti DOCG compare to Barbera d'Alba DOC?

Barbera d'Asti is typically fruitier, more mineral, and higher in acid

288

What are the stylistic hallmarks of Barbera d'Asti Superiore DOCG, and how does this differ from regular Barbera d'Asti?

Riper fruit, lower yields, use of oak (particularly new barrique), resulting in wine with more depth, texture, and complexity compared to simple table Barbera d'Asti

289

Name the subzones of Barbera d'Asti DOCG and what differentiates them from the rest of the appellation

Tinella and Colli Astiani, both of which require lower yields, higher minimum potential alcohol, and longer aging

290

Prior to 2014, what was Nizza DOCG?

A subzone of Barbera d'Asti Superiore DOCG

291

What is the zone of production for Nizza DOCG, and what is special about it?

18 villages around the town of Nizza Monferrato that possess a warmer meso-climate than the rest of Barbera d'Asti DOCG, traditionally delivering the ripest fruit each harvest

292

What are the production specifications for Nizza DOCG?

100% Barbera aged for a minimum of 18 months, at least 6 in oak. Riservas must be aged for 30 months, at least 12 in oak

293

Where is Ruche di Castagnole Monferrato DOCG?

7 hilltop towns around Castagnole Monferrato, northeast of Asti, on the left bank of the Tanaro. Soils transition from calcareous marl to sabbie astiane

294

What are the production specifications for Ruche di Castagnole Monferrato? What is its flavor profile?

90% Ruche, max 10% Barbera or Brachetto. Distinctive rose and red berry aromas, noticeable tannin, bitter finish

295

Where is Brachetto d'Acqui DOCG located? What are the soils like there?

Hills northwest of Acqui Terme, between the Belbo and Bormida rivers. Soils are compact, white calcareous marls, with some areas of sand and sandstone

296

What is the typical flavor profile of Brachetto d'Acqui DOCG?

Sweet, aromatic, and typically sparkling red. Ruby color, intense strawberry and raspberry, some florals, light body, low alcohol

297

What are the production specifications for Brachetto d'Acqui DOCG?

Still/frizzante, spumante, or passito red made from at least 97% Brachetto. Best expressions are frizzante, most production is (Martinotti method) spumante

298

Where is Freisa d'Asti DOC located?

Covers the entire province of Asti, including Monferrato Astigiano

299

What are the production specifications for Freisa d'Asti DOC?

Still, still superiore (minimum 1 year aging), frizante, and spumante are made. All can be dry or off-dry to medium-sweet. Off-dry frizzante is the traditional style

300

Where is Grignolino d'Asti DOC located?

Hills north and south of Asti

301

What role does Grignolino play in Monferrato relative to the other grapes grown there?

Like Dolcetto in the Langhe, Grignolino is made for early, mostly local consumption

302

What are the production specifications for Grignolino d'Asti DOC?

90% Grignolinio, up to 10% Freisa

303

What is the flavor profile of Grignolino d'Asti DOC?

Pale (almost rose) color, floral, strawberry, raspberry aromas, dry, light body, high acid, moderate alcohol, some tannin, bitter finish

304

Name the Dolcetto appellations in the Asti winegrowing district

1, Dolcetto d'Asti DOC

305

What style of wine is made in Malvasia di Casorzo d'Asti DOC?

Sweet red made from Malvasia Nera di Casorzo, with up to 10% Freisa, Grignolino, and/or Barbera

306

What are the categories of Asti DOCG?

Asti DOCG (previously Asti Spumante), fully-sparkling sweet white, and Moscato d'Asti DOCG, frizzante sweet white. Both made from Moscato Bianco

307

What is the average annual production of Asti DOCG?

80 million bottles

308

Where is Asti DOCG located?

South and southeast of Asti on the right bank of the Tanaro, covering more than 50 villages within Asti, Cuneo, and Alessandria

309

What town is the major production center for Asti DOCG?

Canelli

310

What are the soils like in Asti DOCG?

Terre bianchi

311

How are the vines planted in Asti DOCG?

Hillside plantings, Guyot-trained, hand-harvested

312

The introduction of which production method greatly affected Asti DOCG? Why?

Martinotti (tank method). Less labor-intensive, less expensive, preserves Moscato aromatics

313

What is the typical flavor profile of Asti DOCG?

Dense mousse, floral and fruity aromas, sweet, moderate acidity, low alcohol

314

What is Geraniol?

An aromatic compound of the Moscato grape that is pleasant when young but sharp with age; it is the reason Asti DOCG should not be aged

315

Is there a vintage date on Asti DOCG?

Not required but, due to high turns, most Asti DOCG in the market is current

316

What is the Asti method?

Variation on the Martinotti (tank) sparkling method, used in Asti DOCG, in which no still, dry base wine is produced and instead a single fermentation is started and stopped throughout the process

317

Is the traditional method permissible for Asti DOCG?

Yes

318

If Asti DOCG is produced using the traditional method, how long must it be aged?

9 months on the lees

319

Who makes the great majority of Asti DOCG?

Large producers and cooperatives

320

What is Asti secco?

New (2017) style of Asti DOCG allowed to produce drier wines (up to Extra Dry)

321

Describe the production of Moscato d'Asti DOCG

Frizzante sweet wine made from the best, ripest grapes. Single fermentation stopped by chilling the must at 5-5.5% ABV. Sealed under cork with some dissolved CO2 and vintage-dated

322

How does the flavor profile of Moscato d'Asti DOCG compare with regular Asti DOCG?

Moscato d'Asti is frizzante (max 2.5 atmospheres) instead of sparkling, with more pronounced aromas and lower alcohol

323

Who makes the great majority of Moscato d'Asti DOCG?

Small, artisanal producers

324

What are the subzones of Moscato d'Asti DOCG? Where are they located?

Canelli (largest, between Alba and Canelli), Santa Vittoria d'Alba (smallest, within Vittoria d'Alba), and Strevi (Strevi and Acqui Terme)

325

What is Moscato d'Asti Vendemmia Tardiva DOCG?

Moscato d'Asti from late-harvest, partially-dried fruit, aged for at least 1 year

326

What is the difference between Barbera del Monferrato Superiore DOCG and Barbera del Monferrato DOC?

DOCG is for the still red superiore, DOC for the basic still red and frizzante versions

327

Where are Barbera del Monferrato Superiore DOCG and Barbera del Monferrato DOC located?

Same production zone, covering all of Asti and much of Alessandria

328

Where is most Barbera del Monferrato grown?

Alto and Basso Monferrato, though the production zone is much larger

329

How is most Barbera planted in Monferrato? What are the soils like there?

Barbera is planted in the best sites and is usually Guyot-trained. Soils are varied, including calcareous marls, sandstone, sand, and clay

330

What are the production requirements of Barbera del Monferrato Superiore DOCG and Barbera del Monferrato DOC?

Both minimum 85% Barbera, up to 15% Freisa, Grignolino, and/or Dolcetto. Superiore requires lower yields, higher minimum alcohol, and higher extract than the DOC, aged minimum 14 months, at least 6 in oak. DOC has no minimum aging.

331

What are Barbera's traditional blending partners in Monferrato?

Freisa in Baso Monferrato and Dolcetto in Alto Monferrato

332

What distinguishes the flavor profile of Barbera del Monferrato DOCG from Barbera del Monferrato DOC?

DOCG is more structured, softer tannins from oak influence, and more complex aromatics

333

What is the difference between Ovada Superiore DOCG and Ovada DOC?

DOCG is for the superiore wine, DOC for the basic

334

Where are Ovada Superiore DOCG and Ovada DOC located?

Same production zone around Ovada, in southeast Piemonte, just west of (and partially overlapping) Gavi DOCG

335

How is most Dolcetto planted in Ovada Superiore DOCG and Ovada DOC? What are the soils like there?

Planted on slopes, Guyot-trained. Soils are alternating layers of sand, clay, calcareous marl, and limestone

336

What are the production specifications for Ovada Superiore DOCG?

100% Dolcetto, aged for a minimum of one year. Single vineyard wines require 20 months aging, riservas require 2 years aging

337

What are the production specifications for Ovada DOC?

97% Dolcetto, up to 3% other red varieties, no aging requirement

338

Where is Gavi DOCG located?

Around the town of Gavi, southeastern Alto Monferrato, in the province of Alessandria

339

When did Cortese become the primary grape of Gavi?

After phylloxera

340

What was responsible for the poor quality Gavi of the 1980s?

Overcropping / high yields

341

What are the soils like in Gavi DOCG?

Terre bianchi and terre rosse

342

What are the production specifications for GaviDOCG?

100% Cortese. Riservas must be single vineyard and aged at least 1 year, minimum 6 months in bottle. Frizzante and spumante permitted. Spumante riservas must be traditional method and single vineyard. MCR obtained from Cortese is permitted in bad vintages

343

What is the typical flavor profile of Gavi DOCG?

Citrus, almond, and mineral nose. Fresh acidity. Most are unoaked.

344

How many MGAs are there in Gavi? With what do they correspond?

18; 11 communes and 7 hamlets

345

How are Gavi DOCG from an MGA labelled?

Gavi DOCG del Commune di (MGA)

346

Where is Colli Tortonesi DOC located?

Southeast corner of Piemonte, bordering Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna to the east and Liguria to the south, between Alto Monferrato and Oltrepo Pavese

347

What are the dominant varietals of Colli Tortonesi DOC?

Barbera, Dolcetto, Cortese, and the native Timorasso

348

What are the subzones of Colli Tortonesi DOC?

Monleale and Terre di Libarna

349

What are the production specifications for Colli Tortonesi DOC Monleale?

Barbera-based reds aged a minimum of 20 months, minimum 6 in oak

350

What are the production specifications for Colli Tortonesi DOC Terre di Libarna?

95-100% Timorasso, made still or spumante, as well as a riserva version

351

What is Derthona?

The local name for Timorasso in Colli Tortonesi DOC

352

What are the production specifications for Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese DOC?

Minimum 90% Grignolino, up to 10% Freisa

353

What is the broad catchall appellation of the Piemonte?

Piemonte DOC

354

What is Vigneti di Montagna in Piemonte DOC?

Special designation for wines grown in high-elevation, terraced vineyards with a minimum 30% gradient