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Flashcards in placental pathology Deck (78)
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1

Fibroid versus contraction

Equivalent sonographic appearance
Braxton-Hicks relaxes with time

2

what is cervical incompetence

Painless spnataonous dilation of the cervix

3

cervical incompetence can cause what

second trimester preganncy failre

4

nomral cervix

at least 30mm

5

cervical incompetnce meaurement

less than 25mm at 24 weeks

6

what are risk factors for cervical incompetence

history of preterm labour or borth
PROM
uterine abnormalities
multiple gestations

7

what is cord prolapse

presentation of the umbilical cord in advance of presenting fetus during labour and deverlivery

8

cord proplase may lead to what

Sono detection is clinically important b/c it may lead to cord compression and fetal vascular compromise

9

1st trimester umbilcal cord cysts

defined as echolucent area within the umbilical cord with YS separate

10

if cystic cord masses are seen between 7 and 13 weeks

20% are associated with chromosal strctural defects

11

when is fetal abnormality more likley (cystic cord masses)

more likley if a cyst is close to the placenta or close to the fetus or if it persists beyond 12 weeks GA

12

what does vasa previa result in

fetal hypoxia or fetal blood loss

13

what can occur in vasa previa during labour

Can be easily compressed or rupture when uterine contractions or membrane rupture occurs

14

vasa previa is associated with what

bleeding
fetal morbidity

15

what is vasa previa

Condition where umbilical vessels run within membranes near or across the internal cervical os

16

what is velamentous insertion

umbilical vessels separate and course b/t the amnion and chorion at a distance from the placental margin surrounded only by a fold of amnion

17

velamentous insertion is asscoiated with what

Devoid of Wharton’s jelly
Associated with cord compression
Poor fetal growth
Thrombosis
Miscarriage
Prematurity
Lowe birth weight
Fetal malformation
Perinatal death
Low apgar scores
Placenta previa
Vasa previa
Retained placenta

18

what is marginal insertion known as

Battledore placenta

19

in marginal/battledore placenta

CI is within a cenitmere of the placental margin

20

what is umbilical vein vanix

focal dilation of the umbilical vein
usually seen intraabdominal

21

umbilcal vein varnix diameter

greater than 9mm

22

umbilcal vein varnix outcome

usually normal

23

what anomalies can be associated with umbilcal vein varnix

Aneuploidy
Perinatal death
Hydrops

24

fetusues with SUA have a high rate of structural anomaies

Cardiovascular Malformations
CNS
Gastrointestinal
Genitourinary defects
MSK Malformations

25

what chromosomal abnormalities can be associated

trisomy 13 and trisomy 18

26

SUA is asscoiated with

Growth restriction
prematurely
increased perinatal mortality rate

27

what is PMD

relatively recently recognized, rare placental vascular anomaly characterized by mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia.
placentomegaly
often clinically mistakenly as partial hydatidiform mole
Fetus may be completely normal or have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

28

Sono appearance of choriocarcnoma

Focal, hemorrhagic nodule within endometrium
Secondary masses to cervix or vagina
Metastasis to liver

29

symptoms of choriocarcinoma

cough
hemoptysis
neurologic disturbances or hemorrhage

30

what is choriocarcinoma

Abnormal tissue beyond the myometrium that is capable of mets