What parts do an animal and plant cell have in common?
Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria.
What does a plant cell have that an animal cell doesn’t?
Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts.
What’s the role of the cell membrane?
Controls what enters and leaves the cell, e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose.
What is the nucleus and what does it do?
It’s a large structure that contains DNA - instructions for the building and working of the cell.
What is cytoplasm and what does it do?
It’s a jelly like substance that fills the cell, many chemical reactions take place here.
What’s the role of mitochondria and what are they?
They are tiny structures where respiration takes place, releasing energy for cell processes.
What’s the vacuole, where is it found and what is its role?
It’s found in a plant cell, it’s full of cell sap which keeps the cells structure rigid.
Name the main parts of a bacteria cell.
- Cell wall
- Cell membrane
- Chromosomal DNA
- Plasmid DNA
- Flagellum (sometimes)
What is the difference between chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA?
- Chromosomal DNA carries most of the bacterial genes
- Plasmids contain additional genes not found in chromosomes
- Chromosomal DNA is a single loop
What’s the difference between a light microscope and an electron microscope?
- A light microscope uses light to magnify objects.
- An electron microscope uses electrons to view an object.
- An electron microscope is more powerful.
What’s the maximum magnification a light microscope has?
What’s the maximum magnification an electron microscope has?
What is adenines base pair?
What’s cytosines base pair?
What holds the base pairs and DNA strands together?
Weak hydrogen bonds.
The nucleus contains______.
Strings of genes.
What is a gene?
A short piece of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
Each gene is a length of _____.
What’s the DNA’s structure?
How do you extract DNA from a kiwi?
- Mash up the kiwi and mix with salty water and detergent, this breaks open the cells and helps release the DNA from the nuclei.
- Filter the mixture and add protease enzyme to break up the cells proteins and release more DNA.
- Ice-cold ethanol is poured into the mixture, this makes the DNA separate from the liquid so it’s easy to lift out.
Who used X-Rays to study the structure of DNA?
Franklin and Wilkins.
Who helped build the double helix model?
Watson and Crick by using Franklins photographs as a final clue.
How many countries scientists collaborated to decode the human genome?
Why did it only take a short while for the human genome to be decoded?
Many scientists were involved in the project.
GE 1: How is the insulin gene cut out of the human chromosome?
By using a restriction enzyme.
GE 2: What part of the bacteria cell is taken out and how is it used?
Plasmid, part of it is cut out using enzymes in order to make room for the insulin gene.
GE 3: What happens after the insulin is placed into the plasmid?
- The plasmid is put back into the bacteria.
- The bacteria will reproduce and this time with the human insulin gene.
What is 1 advantage of genetic engineering?
- Making insulin through bacteria is cheaper and quicker than any other way which means more diabetic people can be treated.
- Golden rice: Beta-carotene is increased in the rice plant. Beta-carotene makes vitamin A which can prevent illness caused by lack of vitamin A in those who eat mainly rice.
What is 1 disadvantage of genetic engineering?
- Some diabetic people react badly to this insulin and need a different form.
- Golden rice seed is more expensive than regular rice so poorer people can’t afford to grow it.