Plant Form Ch 36 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plant Form Ch 36 Deck (79):
1

What 2 systems does a vascular plant consist of

Root system


Shoot system

2

Vascular Plant:

Root system

- Anchors the plant and is used to absorb water and ions
- Roots are less competitive with other roots from the same plant than with roots from different plants

3

Vascular Plant:

Shoot system

- Consists of supporting stems, photosynthetic leaves, and reproductive flowers
- Repetitive units consist of internode, node, leaf, and axillary bud

4

How are plant cell types distinguished

- size of vacuoles
- Living or not at maturity
- Thickness of secretions found in their cellulose cell walls

5

Cell Wall: Primary v.s Reinforced

Describe relationship between cells.

- Some cells have a primary cell wall of cellulose, synthesized at protoplast or cell membrane

- some cells have a heavily reinforced cell wall with multiple layers of cellulose

6

Name and explain three basic tissue types

Dermal:
- the outer protective covering,
- forms the epidermis, one cell layer thick in most plants,
- covered with a fatty cutin layer constituting the cuticle, -
- contains special cells, including guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs



Ground:
- functions in storage, provide structural support, photosynthesis, and secretions
- Paired sausage-shaped cells
- Flank a stoma – epidermal opening (Passageway for oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor)
- Stomatal patterning genes (reveal a coordinated network of cell–cell communication that informs cells of their positions relative to other cells and determines cell fate)



Vascular: Conducts fluids (water and nutrients) and dissolves substances

7

What does tissue consist of

One or more cell types

8

Dermal, ground, and vascular tissue extend through what system(s)

Root and Shoot

9

New growth occurs at

Meristems

10

What are meristems?

1. Clumps of small particles with dense cytoplasm and large nuclei

11

Meristems act as

Stem cells do in animals

12

Meristems divide to produce

Differentiated cell, and meristematic cell

13

Apical meristems produce

Extensions of shoot and root systems

14

Lateral meristems produce

An increase in shoot and root diameter

15

Where are apical meristems located?

What do they give rise too?

What is the apical meristem composed of?

1. Tips of stems and roots


2. Primary tissues aka primary plant body

3. Delicate cells that need protection, root cap, and leaf primordia

16

Apical meristem:

1. Root Cap

2. Leaf primordia

1. Protects root apical meristem

2. Protect shoot apical meristem

17

Apical meristem gives rise to the three tissue systems by first initiating _________

Primary Meristems

18

Apical Meristem:

Name and describe the 3 primary meristems

Protoderm – forms epidermis

Procambrium – produces primary vascular tissue

Ground meristem – differentiates into ground tissue

19

Describe:

intercalary meristems

- Arise in stem internode

- to internode length

20

Lateral Meristems:

Where are they found?

What do they give rise too?

- In plants that exhibit seconndary growth

- secondary tissues which are collectively called the secondary plant body

21

Lateral meristems:

Name two types of woody plants, and tell what they produce

- Cork cambium produces outer bark

- Vascular cambium produces secondary vascular tissue
(Secondary xylem is the main component of wood)

22

Trichomes

- Cellular or multicellular hairlike outgrowths of the epidermis
- Keep leaf surfaces cool and reduce evaporation by covering stomatal openings
- Some are glandular, secreting substances that deter herbivory

23

Root Hairs

- Tubular extensions of individual epidermal cells
- Greatly increase the root’s surface area and efficiency of absorption
- Should not be confused with lateral roots

24

Ground Tissue:

Name and describe the cell types

Parenchyma:
- Most common type of plant cell
- Function in storage, photosynthesis, and secretion

Collenchyma:
- Provide support and protection for plant organs
- Allow bending without breaking

Sclerenchyma:
- tough, thick walls
- Provide support and protection (strength)
- 2º cell walls contain lignin

Sclerids -

25

Vascular Tissue:

Xylem

- Principal water-conducting tissue
- Transports water and minerals from roots to shoots

26

Vascular tissue:

Vessels

- Continuous tubes of dead cylindrical cells arranged end-to-end

- Vessel members tend to be shorter and wider than tracheids

27

Vascular tissue:

Tracheids

- Transport cell
- Dead cells that taper at the end and overlap one another

28

Vascular Tissue:

Transpiration

- diffusion of water vapor from plant

29

What tissue type includes fibers and parenchyma cells (ground tissue cells)?

Vascular tissue

30

Phloem

- Principal food-conducting tissue in vascular plants

- Contains two types of elongated cells (Sieve cells, Living cells)

31

Phloem:

1. Describe Sieve Cells.

2. Describe Living Cells.

1. (seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms) and sieve tube members (angiosperms), Sieve-tube members are more specialized (more efficient), Associated with companion cells


2. Living cells that contain clusters of pores called sieve areas or sieve plates

32

Roots

Simpler pattern of organization and development than stems

33

What are the 4 regions of roots

- Root cap
- Zone of cell division
- Zone of elongation
- Zone of maturation

34

Root Cap

- Contains two types of cells that are formed continuously by the root apical meristem
1. Columella cells – inner
2. Root cap cells – outer and lateral

- Functions mainly in protection of the delicate tissues behind it

35

Zone of Cell Division

- Derived from rapid divisions of the root apical meristem

- Contains mostly cuboidal cells, with small vacuoles and large central nuclei

- Apical meristem daughter cells soon subdivide into the three primary tissues:

Protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem

36

Zone of Cell Division:

1. WEREWOLF (WER) gene

2. SCARECROW (SCR) gene

1. Suppresses root hair development

2. Necessary for differentiation of endodermal and ground cells

37

Zone of Elongation

- Roots lengthen because cells become several times longer than wide
- Width also increases slightly
- No further increase occurs above this zone
- Mature parts of the root, except for increasing in girth, remain stationary for the life of the plant

38

Zone of Maturation

- Elongated cells become differentiated into specific cell types
- Root surface cells become epidermal cells
Have very thin cuticle
Include root hair and nonhair cells
- Parenchyma cells produced by cortex (ground meristem)
Inner boundary becomes endodermis - Casparian strips
Stele – tissues interior to endodermis
Pericycle

39

Modified Roots:

1. Taproot system

2. Fibrous root system

3. Adventitious roots

4. specific functions


1. single large root with small branch roots

2. many small roots of similar diameter

3. arise from any place other than the plant’s root

4. produce modified roots

40

Prop roots

Keep the plant upright

41

Aerial roots

Obtain water from the air

42

Pneumatophores

Facilitate oxygen uptake

43

Contractile roots

Pull plant deeper into soil

44

Parasitic roots

Penetrate host plants

45

Food storage roots

Store carbohydrates

46

Water storage roots

Weigh 50 kg or more

47

Buttress roots

Provide considerable stability

48

Stems

- undergo growth from cell division in apical and lateral stems
- Shoot apical meristem initiates stem tissue and intermittently produces primordia

49

Stems:

1. Node

2. Internode

3. Blade

4. Petiole

5. Axillary bud

6. Terminal bud

1. point of attachment of leaf to stem

2. area of stem between two nodes

3. flattened part of leaf

4. stalk of leaf

5. develops into branches with leaves or may form flowers

6. extends the shoot system during the growing season

50

Monocot (one cotyledon) vs. Dicot (two cotyledon) Stems:

Cotyledon

embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the 1st leaves to appear from a germinating seed

51

Monocot (one cotyledon) vs. Dicot (two cotyledon) Stems:

1. Major distinguishing feature between monocot and eudicot stems is

2. Monocot vascular bundles are usually scattered throughout ____________

3. Eudicot vascular tissue is arranged in a ring with

1. the organization of the vascular tissue system

2. ground tissue system

3. internal ground tissue (pith) and external ground tissue (cortex) - Rose family and legumes

52

Vascular tissue arrangement is directly related to

the stem’s ability for secondary growth

53

Vascular Tissue Arrangement:

1. eudicots

2. monocots

1. vascular cambium develops between the primary xylem and phloem

2. there is no vascular cambium – no secondary growth

54

Connects the ring of primary vascular bundles

vascular cambium

55

Tree Stump Rings

- reveal annual patterns of vascular cambium growth

- Cell size depends on growth conditions

56

Tree Stump Rings:

In woody eudicots and gymnosperms, the ________ arises in the outer cortex

cork cambium - Produces boxlike cork cells on outside

57

Tree Stump Rings:

Periderm

- cork cambium, cork, and phelloderm
- Forms outer bark

58

Lenticels

Cork cambium produces unsuberized cells that permit gas exchange to continue

59

Bulbs

swollen underground stems, consisting of fleshy leaves

60

Corms

superficially resemble bulbs, but have no fleshy leaves

61

Rhizomes

horizontal underground stems, with adventitious roots

62

Runners and stolons

horizontal stems with long internodes that grow along the surface of the ground

63

Tubers

swollen tips of rhizomes that contain carbohydrates

64

Tendrils

twine around supports and aid in climbing

65

Cladophylls

flattened photosynthetic stems resembling leaves

66

Leaves

- Principal site of photosynthesis
- Expand by cell enlargement and cell division
- Determinate in structure – growth stops at maturity

67

Name and describe 2 different morphological groups of leaves

1. Microphyll
- Leaf with one vein branching from the stem and not extending the full length of the leaf
- Phylum Lycophyta

2. Megaphylls

- Several to many veins
- Most plants

68

Eudicot Leaves

- flattened petiole

- Slender stalk called petiole

- Leaf flattening increases photosynthetic surface

- Flattening of the leaf blade reflects a shift from radial symmetry to dorsal–ventral (top–bottom) symmetry

69

stipules

- Outgrowths at base of petiole
- May be leaf-forming or modified as spines

70

Veins

- Vascular bundles in leaves
- Main veins are parallel in most monocot leaves
- Veins of eudicots form an often intricate network

71

Simple leaves

- contain undivided blades
- May have teeth, indentations, or lobes

72

Compound leaves

have blades that are divided into leaflets

73

The leaf’s surface is covered by transparent

epidermal cells

74

Leaf Epidermis

- Most have no chloroplasts

- Epidermis has a waxy cuticle

- Different types of glands and trichomes may be present

- Lower epidermis contains numerous stomata flanked by guard cells

75

Mesophyll in Eudicots :

1. Palisade mesophyll

2. Spongy mesophyll

1. usually two rows of tightly packed chlorenchyma cells

2. loosely arranged cells with many air spaces in between.
Function in gas exchange and water vapor exit

76

Mesophyll in Monocots

1. mesophyll is usually not differentiated into palisade/spongy layers

77

Modified Leaves:

1. Floral leaves (bracts)

2. Spines

3. Reproductive leaves

4. Window leaves

1. surround true flowers and behave as showy petals

2. reduce water loss and may deter predators

3. plantlets capable of growing independently into full-sized plant

4. succulent, cone-shaped leaves that allow photosynthesis underground

78

Shade leaves

larger in surface area but with less mesophyll than sun-lit leaves

79

Insectivorous leaves

- trap insects

- Pitcher plants have cone-shaped leaves that accumulate rainwater

- Sundews have glands that secrete sticky mucilage

- Venus flytrap have hinged leaves that snap shut