Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (49):
Capacity to do work
Name the states of energy
Energy in motion
Name 5 forms of energy
How is heat measured?
1 calorie =
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of water by 1 degree Celsius
1 kilo calorie =
1st Law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Energy can only be converted from one form to another
Concerns amount of energy in the universe
2nd Law of thermodynamics
Order is more likely than disorder
Concerns the transformation of potential energy into heat or molecular motion
Entropy is always increasing
Disorder in the universe
Branch of chemistry that deals with energy changes, or "heat changes"
Potential energy stored in chemical bonds can be transferred from one molecule to another by way of ____________
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
What is the most common electron acceptor?
Reduced form of a molecule has a higher ______________ than the oxidized form
Level of energy
Breaks the chemical bonds that hold atoms together
Increases atomic motion
Makes it easier for atoms to pull apart
Energy available to do work or break and form other chemical bonds
Denoted as the symbol G (Gibbs free energy)
Energy contained in a molecules chemical bonds
G = H - (TS)
What does each letter represent?
G = Free energy
H = Enthalpy
What creates changes in free energy: G= H-(TS) ?
1) Chemical bonding _________ disorder.
2) Heat ________ disorder.
G = H - (TS)
When is G positive?
When products contain more free energy than reactants
Energy is supplied
G = H- (TS)
When is G negative?
When reactants contain more free energy than products
Energy is released
G is positive (products of the reaction contains more free energy than reactants)
G is negative (reactants of the reaction contain more free energy than the products)
The transfer of energy in chemical reactions can be described as either __________ or _____________
Most reactions require _______ to get started
Extra energy needed to get a reaction initiated or started
Destabilizes chemical bonds
Used in endergonic and exergonic reactions
Large amounts of activation energy can slow down reactions
Substance that lowers activation energy
Does not alter proportion of reactant
The chief energy "currency" of cells, powers almost every energy requiring process in cells.
Describe ATP structure :
Ribose (5-carbon sugar)
Where does ATP store energy?
Bonds between phosphates
Describe Phosphates :
Repel each other (phosphates)
Require a lot of energy to keep phosphates bound to each other
Releases a lot of energy when bond between phosphates is broken
When the bond between phosphates is broken ATP converts to __________, therefore energy has been ___________
(T/F) This reaction is not reversible?
ADP + P(i)
False. Reaction is reservable.
What makes ATP an effective energy donor?
Is ATP a good long term energy storage molecule?
No. It is unstable (instability)
What fuels the production of ATP from ADP + Pi?
The energy released from an exergonic reaction
The energy released when ATP is broken down to ADP
Fuels endergonic reactions
Molecules that catalyze reactions in living cells
Most are proteins
Lower activation energy required for reaction not changes or consumed by the reaction
Interact with substrates
What enables an enzyme to stabilize a temporary association between substrates
Unique 3- dimensional shape
Molecule that will undergo a reaction
Region of the enzyme that binds to the substrate
Binding of an enzyme to a substrate causes the enzyme to
Change shape= producing a better induced fit between the molecules
Bringing 2 substrates together in the correct orientation causes an enzyme to
Lower its activation energy required for new bonds to form
Not all enzymes are proteins.