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RUSVM toxicology plants > Plants (no pictures) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plants (no pictures) Deck (152):
1

Periwinkle

(Cathanranthus roseus; vinca roseus)

Cardiac glycosides

2

Kaffir lily, caffir lily

(Clivia spp.)

Lycorine

3

Skunk cabbage

(Sympolocarpus foetidus)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

4

Precatory bea

(Abrus precatorius)

Lectin (phytotoxin, toxalbumin)

5

Pride of barbados

(Caesalpinia spp.)

Tannic acid (tannin)

6

Violets

(Viola spp.)

Nitropropanol glycosides

7

St. John's wort

(Hypericum perforatum)

Quinone

8

Grass family

(Panicum spp.)

Steroidal saponins

9

Lily of the valley

(Convallaria majalis)

Cardiac glycosides

10

Jack-in-the-pulpit

(Arisaema triphyllum)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

11

Japenese yew

(Taxus spp.)

Taxine alkaloids

12

Lantana, yellow sage

(Lantana camara)

Titerpene acid

13

Chenille plant, cat plant

(Acalypha hispida)

Diterpene esters

14

Oleander

(Nerium oleaner)

Cardiac glycosides

15

Buckwheat

(fagopyrun esculentum)

Quinone

16

Arrowhead vine, Nephthytis

(Syngonium podophyllum)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

17

River lily

(Crinum bulbispermum)

Lycorine

18

Rhododendron, Azalea

(Rhododendron spp.)

Grayanotoxins

19

Flamingo plant

(Anthurium spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

20

Squill

(Ureginea maritima)

Cardiac glycosides

21

Yellow oleander, lucky nut, Be-still tree

(Thevetia peruviana)

Cardiac glycosides

22

Red Maple

(Acer rubrum)

Unknown toxin in dried leaves

23

Ponderosa pine

(Pinus ponderosa)

Isocupressic acid

24

Johnsongrass, Sudan grass, Sorghum

(Sorghum spp.)

Cyanogenic glycosides Nitrate Selenium

25

Candelabra "cactus"

(Euphorbia lacta)

Diterpene esters

26

Horsebrush

(Tetradymia spp)

Tetradymol

27

Pencil tree

(Euphorbia tirucalli)

Diterpene esters

28

Autumn crocus, meadow saffron

(Colchicum autumnale)

Colchine

29

Wheat

(Triticum aestivum)

Nitrate

Moldy: forage-induced photosensitization

30

Hembane

(Hyoscyamus spp.)

Tropane alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)

31

Chinese lantern

(Physalis spp.)

Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids

32

Beargrass

(Noline spp.)

Steroidal saponins

33

Japanese pieris, Mountain pieris

(Pieris spp.)

Grayanotoxins

34

Tomato

(Lycopersicon lycopersicon)

Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids

35

Elderberry

(Sambucus canadensis)

Cyanogenic glycosides

Cyanide accumulation

36

Buckthorn

(Rhamnus spp.)

Anthraquinone

37

Dumcane varieties

(Dieffenbachia spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

38

Grapevine

(Vitis spp.)

Grapes and raisins (unknown)

39

Coontie

(Zamia pulmila)

Cycasin

40

Paintbrush

(Castilleja spp.)

Selenium

41

Agave

(Agave lechugilla)

Steroidal saponins

42

Poisonous mushroom

(Amanita muscaria)

Muscarine

43

Day-blooming jessamine

(Cestrum diurnum)

Calcinogenic glycosides (vit D analog)

44

Alocacia, elephant's ear

(Alocacia spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

45

Dog hobble, Dog laurel, Black laurel

(Leucothoe spp.)

Grayanotoxins

46

Black locust

(Rhobina pseudoacacia)

Lectin (phytotoxin, toxalbumin)

47

Anemone, ranunculus, clematis, hellborus

(buttercup family)

Protoanemonin

48

Black walnut

(Juglans nigra)

Black walnut

49

Greasewood

(Sarcobatus vermiculatus)

Soluble oxalate

50

Mustards

(Brassica spp.)

Dimethyl disulfide

51

Cottonseed

(Gossypium spp.)

Gossypol

52

Mountain laurel, Sheep laurel, Sheepkill

(Kalmia spp.)

Grayanotoxins

53

Jimsonweed, Thornapple, Angel's trumpet

(Datura stramonium)

Tropane alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)

Mechanical injury from seed pods

54

Lotus

(Lotus spp.)

Nitropropanol glycoside

55

Lilies

(Lilium spp.)

Unknown toxin (lily toxin)

56

Alfalfa

(Medicago sativa)

  • Phytoestrogens
  • Selenium
  • Nitrate
  • Triterpenoid sapnoins
  • Moldy: forage-induced photosensitization

57

Monkshade, aconite

(Aconitum spp.)

Diterpene alkaloids

58

Corn, maize

(Zea mays)

Nitrate

59

Glory lily, climbing lily

(Gloriosa superb)

Colchine

60

Cuckoo-pint

(Arum maculatum)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

61

Poinsettia

(Euphorbia pulcherrima)

Diterpene esters

62

Tobacco

(Nicotiana tabaccum)

Piperdine alkaloids

Pyridine alkaloids

63

Coral plant

(Jatropha multifida)

Lectin (phytotoxin, toxalbumin)

64

Saltbrush

(Atriplex spp.)

Selenium

65

Coyote tobacco

(Nicotiana attenuata)

Piperdine alkaloids

66

Milkvetches

(Osytropis spp.)

  • Indolizidine alkaloids (swainsonine)
  • Nitropropanol glycoside
  • Selenium

67

Aloe

(Aloe vera)

Anthraquinone

68

Castor bean

(Ricinus communis)

Lectin (phytotoxin, toxalbumin)

69

Crown of thorns

(Euphorbia milli var splendens)

Diterpene esters

70

Philodendron varieties

(Philodendron spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

71

Onion, Garlic, Shallots, Chives, Leek

(Allium spp.)

Propyl disulfide

72

Monterey cypress

(Cupressus macrocarpus)

Isocupressic acid

73

Eggplant

(Solanum melongena)

Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids

74

Sweet clover

(Melilotus officinalis)

Coumarin glycosides

Copper Nitrate

75

Avocado

(Persea americana)

Avocado

76

Sago palm

(Cycas circinalis)

Cycasin

77

Rattlebox, crotolaria

(Crotolaria spp.)

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

78

Wild cherries

(Prunus spp.)

Cyanogenic glycosides

79

Lakspur, Delphinium

(Delphinium spp.)

Diterpene alkaloids

80

Rape seed, kale, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, turnip, cauliflower

(Brassica spp.)

Glucosinolate (thiocynate glycoside)

81

Soybean

(Glycine spp)

Glucosinolate (thiocynate glycoside)

Lectin

82

American nightshade

(Solanum americanum)

Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids

83

Sorrel and soursop

(Oxalis spp.)

Soluble oxalate

84

Sandbox tree

(Hura crepitans)

Diterpene esters

Lectin (phytotoxin, toxalbumin)

85

Coffee

(Coffee arabica)

Xanthine alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline, theobromide)

86

Flax

(Linum spp.)

Glucosinolate (thiocynate glycoside)

87

Alsike clover

(Trifolium hybridum)

Alsike clover and red clover

Copper

88

Purslane

(Portulacca aleracea)

Soluble oxalate

89

Fishtail palm

(Caryota mitis)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

90

Cocklebur

(Xanthium strumarium)

Carboxyatractyloside (sulfated glycosides)

Mechanical injury from seed pods

91

Rhubarb

(Rheum rhaponiticum)

Soluble oxalate

92

Kallanchoe

(Kallanchoe spp.)

Cardiac glycosides

93

Yellow Starthistle and Russian Knapweed

(Centaurea solstitialis and Acroptilon/centaurea repens)

Unknown toxin; equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia

94

Zephyr lily, rain lily

(Zephyranthes spp.)

Lycorine

95

English holly, Christmas holly

(Ilex aquifolium)

Triterpenoid sapnonins

96

Black nightshade

(Solanum niger)

Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids

97

Marijuana

(Cannabis sativa)

Resin or resinoids

98

Cascara sagrada

(Rhamnus purshiana)

Anthraquinone

99

American holly

(Ilex opaca)

Titrepenoid sapnonins

100

Angel's trumpet

(Brugmansia candida)

Tropane alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)

101

Caladium varieties

(Caladium spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

102

Maleberry, Fetterbush, Staggerbush

(Lyonia spp.)

Grayanotoxins

103

Pigweed

(Amaranthus retroflexus)

  • Soluble oxalate
  • Nitrate
  • Unknown toxin (causing renal tubular damage in ruminants, pigs, and horses)

104

Beet

(Beta vulgaris)

Soluble oxalate

Nitrate

105

Cardboard palm

(Zamia furfuraceae)

Cycasin

106

Chalice vine

(Solandra guttota)

Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids

107

Aster

(Aster spp.)

Selenium

108

Coffee weed, senna

(Senna accidentalis)

Anthraquinone

Senna

109

Turkey Berry

(Solanum torvum)

Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids

Calcinogenic glycosides (vit D analog)

110

Barbados lily, fire lily

(Hippeastrum spp.)

Lycorine

111

Croton

(Codiaeum variegatum)

Diterpene esters

112

Princess's plume

(Stanlyea spp.)

Selenium

113

Sicklepod

(Senna obtusifolia)

Senna (unknown)

114

Milkweed

(Asclepias spp.)

Cardiac glycosides

Resin or resinoids

115

Umbrella tree

(Schefflera spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

116

Physicnut

(Jatropha curcas)

Diterpene esters

117

English ivy, Common ivy

(Hendra helix)

Titerpenoid sapnonins

118

Devil's trumpet

(Datura metel)

Tropane alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)

119

Pothos, Dvil's Ivy

(Epipremnum spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

120

Wild physicnut

(Jatropha gossypifolia)

Diterpene esters

121

Peace lily

(Spathiphyllum spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

122

Lamb's quarters

(Chenopodium album)

Soluble oxalate

Nitrate

123

Halogeton

(Halogeton spp.)

Soluble oxalate

124

Oats

(Avena sativa)

Nitrate

125

Locoweed

(Atragalus spp.)

Indolizidine alkaloids (swainsonine)

126

Narcissus

(Narcissus spp.)

Lycorine

127

Indigo

(Indigofera spp.)

Nitropropanol glycoside

128

Spider lily

(Hymenocallis caribaea)

Lycorine

129

Red clover

(Trifolium pratense)

Alsike clover and red clover

Copper

130

Subterranean clover

(Trifolium subterraneum)

Phytoestrogens

Copper

131

Foxglove

(Digitalis purpurea)

Cardiac glycosides

132

Senecio, Groundsel, Ragwort

(Senecio spp.)

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

133

Chinese evergreen (Aglanema spp.)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

134

Pokeweed, inkberry

(Phytolacca americana)

Titerpenoid saponins

135

Cocoa

(Theobroma cocao)

Xanthine alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline, theobromide)

136

Cutleaf philodendron, Swiss cheese plant

(Monstera deliciosa)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

137

Ergot

(Claviceps purpurea)

Ergot alkaloid

138

Tree tobacco

(Nicotiana gluca)

Piperdine alkaloids

Pyridine alkaloids

139

Lobelia

(Lobelia spp.)

Pyridine alkaloids

140

Day lily

(Hemerocallis spp.)

Unknown toxin (lily toxin)

141

Poison hemlock, Spotted hemlock, California or Nebraska fern

(Conium maculatum)

Piperdine alkaloids

142

Horsetail

(Equisetum hyemale)

Thiaminase

143

Chinaberry

(Melia azedarrach)

Meliatoxin

Resin or resinoids

144

Sunflower

(Helianthus annus)

Nitrate

145

Goldenwood

(Onopsis spp.)

Selenium

146

White clover

(Trifolium repens)

Phytoestrogens

Copper

147

Calla lily, Arum lily

(Zantedeschia oethiopica)

Insoluble calcium oxalate

148

Woody aster

(Xylorrhiza spp.)

Selenium

149

Japanese cycad

(Cycas revoluta)

Cycasin

150

Bracken fern, brake fern

(Pteridium aquilinum)

Ptaquiloside

Thiaminase

151

Lupines

(Lupinus spp.)

Piperdine alkaloids

152

Oak tree

(Quercus spp.)

Tannic acid (tannin)