Flashcards in Plasma Cell Neoplasms Deck (23):
What is an "M" spike?
A monoclonal protein spike seen in serum protein electrophoresis of a pt with multiple myeloma. On the gel, it will look like a very dense area. Polyclonal proteins have more diffuse bands. On a computer reading, it will look like a very high, distinct sharp peak. Polyclonal proteins will show broad humps, instead (as seen in inflammation and liver disease).
What does an IFE tell you?
ImmunoFixation Electrophoresis tells you exactly what type of monoclonal protein you have in excess.
Name the four components of CRAB
1) bony destruction (pain, fractures, spinal cord compression)
2) hypercalcemia (altered mental status, renal insufficiency)
3) Renal insufficiency (**light chain nephropathy**, amyloid, uric acid, hypercalcemia, infection)
Describe the mechanism of bone destruction in myeloma
Myeloma cells secrete DKK1 which causes osteoblasts to release IL-6 and RANKL which activates osteoclasts to break down bone.
Stage a myeloma with International staging system (ISS) aka international space station aka Islamic State of Syria but not Iraq.
ISS: the higher Beta2 microglobulin goes, the worse off the pt is. As albumin drops, pt gets worse. (albumin tells you about general body health, according to Weir)
Name the worst prognostic chromosome abnormality in myeloma
**anything with 14 in it isn't good, according to Weir. Fuck 14.
What two classifications of new drugs have changed the way we treat myeloma? MOA?
IMiDs (immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide) and proteosome inhibitors (Bortezomib)
When is an autologous transplant indicated in myeloma?
Young pts who you can get into deep remission on chemo.
Why do Waldenstrom pts become hyperviscous more commonly than myeloma pts?
Name three causes of amyloidosis
1) Light chain amyloidosis - may be primary or secondary to myeloma
- involves nervous system, heart, GI tract, and liver
2) Transthyretin amyloidosis - familial
- same systematic involvement as light chain
3) Amyloidosis AA- due to chronic inflammation
-renal disease, hepatic and GI involvement
Terminally differentiated B cell malignancy
***What diagnostic test should I order to screen for myeloma?***
Serum protein electrophoresis *** REMEMBER THIS***
Which result would make me want most to treat a paraproteinemia?
IG > 4GM%
20% plasma cells in bone marrow
Abnormal serum free light chain ration
Bence Jones proteinuria
You will see all of these in multiple myeloma, but you treat based on what is doing most harm to the body. That is CRAB+, in this case.
What race is at higher risk for multiple myeloma?
In a peripheral smear in a pt with multiple myeloma, you will see what RBC configuration? I.e. what are the red blood cells doing, together.
Rouleaux formation. RBC are stacking up due to increased protein presence in serum. Something about electrostatic forces and such.
How do you make a definitive Dx of multiple myeloma?
1) M-protein (paraprotein) in serum or urine. This is in no way related to Strep. pyogenes. It is the abnormal monoclonal protein produced in excess by proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Makes for hyper viscous blood. MMMMnotgood.
2) Marrow clonal plasma cells (all cells express either kappa or lambda, rather than a mixture in the cell population)
3) Related organ or tissue impairment (CRAB)
Why are bone xrays abnormal in myeloma?
Myeloma cells secrete DKK1 and cause osteoblasts and marrow stromal cells to secrete cytokines (such as IL-6) that increase RANKL expression by osteoblasts that activate RANK on osteoclasts and tell them to get busy breaking down all the bone. Results in lytic lesions in bone and hypercalcemia.
Which of the following is an indicator of very poor prognosis for myeloma?
17p deletion (**Seen in both CLL and Myeloma**)
lose ability for damaged cells to die, so they hang out and continue to acquire more mutations. Same as p53 mutation/deletion.
Which treatment presently provides best survival in myeloma?
Which signs are similar in Waldenstrom's and myeloma?
Lytic bone lesions
What's going on in Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia?
Low grade lymphoma which produces excess monoclonal IgM paraprotein. 97% > 40 yo
Fatigue, weight loss
Hyperviscous syndrome (headache, blurred vision, mental status change, ataxia)
Serum viscosity 4x normal.
How do we treat Waldenstrom Macrog?
Pretty much the same way as multiple myeloma. Bortezomib. alkylating agents, rituximab, Plasmapheresis.