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English I > Poetry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Poetry Deck (40):
1

form

refers to a poem's structure or the way the words appear on the page

Ex: concrete, iambic, ode

2

a line

a basic structural component of a poem

lines can be written in free form, in syllabic form (e.g. haiku) or in metrical form

3

meter

the syllables you count

metrical lines can vary in length from the monometer to the octameter

regular pattern of rhythm

iambs, trochees, spondees, anapests, & dactyls

4

a stanza

1+ lines tht make up the basic units of a poem - sep-ed from each other by spacing

stanza forms can be classified by the # of lines they employ e.g. couplet, triplet, quatrain

5

couplet

a stanza comprising of 2 lines

6

rhyme

the pattern of rhyming lines in a poem

usually referred to by using letters to idnicate which lines rhyme

Ex: abab indicates 4-line stanza in which the first & 3rd, and 2nd & 4th lines rhyme

7

end rhyme

a rhyme tht occurs in the last syllables of verses

end of line

8

internal rhyme

rhyme tht occurs w/in the line

9

sonnet

14 line poem 

usually iambic pentamters consisting of an octave(8 lines) & a sextet(6 lines); octave presetns & develops the theme while the sextet reflects & brings the poem to a conclusion

10

Italian or Petrarchan sonnet

a-b-b-a, a-b-b-a, c-d-e, c-d-e

the sonnet was originated by the Italian poet Guittone of Arezza & then popularized by Petrarch (1304-74).

the term sonnet derives from Italian for "little song"

 

11

Shakespearean or English sonnet

a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g

essentially consists of 3 quatrians & a final couplet & usually features a break b/w the octave & the sextet

12

free verse

verse w/out formal meter/rhyme patterns

instead relies upon the natural rhythms of everyday speech

diff from blank verse, which has a specific pattern

13

scansion

marking stressed syllables / and unstressed syllables x

14

a foot

one stressed syllable & 1/2 unstressed syllables

a lot of irregularities tho

each unit of rhythm

Each poem contains a certain # of ft of iabms, trochees, spondees, dactyls, or anapests. 

1 = monometer

2 = dimeter

3 = trimeter

4 = tetrameter

5 = pentameter

6 = hexameter

7 = heptameter

8 = octameter

the # of syllables in a line varies therefore according to the meter

15

iambic

x /

Ex: That time of year thou mayst in me behold (iambic pentameter)

16

trochaic

/ x

Ex: Tell me not in mournful numbers (trochaic tetrameter)

 

17

spondaic

/ / 

Break, break, break/ On thy cold gray stones, O Sea! (irregular)

heartbreak

football

18

anapestic

x x /

Ex: And the sound of a voice that is still (anapestic trimeter)

19

dactylic

/ x x

This is the forest primeval, the murmuring pines and the hemlock (trochee replaces final dactyl, dactylic hexameter)

20

figurative language

language that uses words beyond their literal meaning, often comparing 2 very diff things

Ex: The sun smiled kindly on us. (sun & kind person)

21

simile

a comparison b/w 2 unlike things, using the word like or as

Ex: The clouds are like graywhales.

22

metaphor

a comparison b/w 2 unlike things, not using the word like or as

Ex: The waves are glass mountains.

23

personification

a desc. of an obj, an animal, a place, or an idea in human terms

Ex: "This poem has taken many victims."

24

hyperbole

an exaggeration for emphasis or human effect

"The hunger of this poem is legendary."

25

sound devices

ways of using the sounds of words to create special effects, such as through rhythm, rhyme, and repetition

 

26

alliteration

repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words

Ex: smooth, slippery stones

not the letter but the sound

"Which circle slowly with a silken swish"

27

assonance

repetition of vowel sounds in words that don't end with the same consonant

Ex: wild night ride

"Words shy and dappled deep-eyed deer in herds"

28

consonance

repetition of consonance sounds w/in & @ the end of words

ending of verbs & truly plural don't count - must be intentional

"Whose nest is from the watered shoot"

 

29

repetition

a sound, word, phrase, or line that is repeated for emphasis & unity

anaphora

"Back off from this poem 

It has drawn in yr feet

Back off from this poem"

30

speaker

the "voice" that the reader hears in a poem

similar to narrator

31

onomatopoeia

words have sounds that echo their meaning

Ex: buzz, gargle

32

haiku

a Japanese poem 

17 syllables, in 3 lines of 5, 7, & 5

33

telegraphic sentence

5 words/fewer

34

tricolon

3 things in a row

35

present participles

end in -ing

Ex: jumping, burning, speaking

36

past participles

usually end in -ed, -t, or -en

Ex: jumped, burnt, spoken

37

participles

verbs acting as adjectives

aren't preceded by an auxiliary verb!

38

participle phrases

participles can combine w/ other words into these

they act as adj's

Ex: Rejected by all his friends, he decided to become a monk.

39

infinitives & infinitive phrases

a verbal construction made up of the particle to and the base form of a verb, w/ or w/out modifiers & obj's

can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb

Ex: to be, to have, to command

40

prepositions & prepositional phrases

a group of words made up of a prep, its obj, & any of the obj's modifiers

can modify nouns, verbs, phrases, & complete clauses

can be embedded inside other prep phrases