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Flashcards in RomJul Deck (52):
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act

a division within a play, much like chapters of a novel

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aside

lines that are spoken by a character directly to the audience

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cast of characters

a list of characters presented before the action begins

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chorus

a person or group of people who act as a narrator, commentator, or general audience to the action of the play

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comedy

a humorous work of drama Ends happily, usually with a wedding or other celebration

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dialogue

a conversation between two or more characters

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drama

a work of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience

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foil

a character who is nearly opposite of another character; the purpose of a foil (or character foil) is to reveal a stark contrast between the two characters, often the protagonist and antagonist Ex. Romeo/Friar Lawrence, Benvolio/Mercutio, Nurse/Juliet

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monologue

a long speech spoken by a character to himself, another. Character, or to the audience

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scene

a division of an act into smaller parts

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soliloquy

thoughts spoken aloud by a character when he/she is alone, or thinks he/she is alone

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stage directions

italicizes comments that identify parts of the setting or the use of props or costume, give further info about a character, or provide background info; in Shakespeare's plays, stage directions can also appear in brackets, parenthesis, and/or half-brackets

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tragedy

a serious work of drama in which the hero suffers catastrophe or serious misfortune, usually because of his own actions

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tragic hero

a protagonist with a fatal flaw which eventually leads to his demise

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alliteration

repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or stressed syllables

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allusion

a literary reference to a well-known work of art, music, history, or literature

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blank verse

non-rhyming poetry, usually written in iambic pentameter. Most of Shakespeare's plays are written in this form, which is very close to normal speech rhythms and patterns Often Shakespeare will deviate from this form in order to make a point about the characters state of mind or for other emphasis, like a change in the mood

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comic relief

in a tragedy, a break in the seriousness for a moment of comedy of silliness

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double entendre

a word or phrase with more than one meaning, usually when the second meaning is risqué

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dramatic irony

when the audience or reader knows something that the characters in the story do not know

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euphemism

a substitution of a more pleasant expression for one whose meaning may come across as rude or offensive

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figurative language

writing or speech that is not meant to be taken literally; often used to compare dissimilar objects; figurative language includes metaphor, simile, personification, and hyperbole

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foreshadowing

hints of events to occur later in a story

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iamb

a unit in poetry consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable

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iambic pentameter

a 10-syllable line divided into 5 iambic feet (one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable). This is the basic rhythm of Shakespeare's verse

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imagery

language which works to evoke images in your mind

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irony

a contradiction between what is expected and what actually is - or appearance versus reality; includes verbal irony, situational irony, and dramatic irony

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metaphor

a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is replaced by another, often indicating a likeness or similarity between them

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oxymoron

when two opposite terms are used together

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personification

attributing human characteristics to non-human objects

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prose

normal speech rhythm; Shakespeare often wrote certain characters speaking either in all verse or all prose, indicating some personality trait of the he character. If get the character deviates from its normal form, be aware of a changing state of mind...often prose signals a character slipping into insanity

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pun

a play on words, especially those that sound alike, but have different meanings

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rhyming couplet

two rhyming lines at the end of a speech, signaling that a character is leaving the stage or that the scene is ending

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simile

a figure of speech comparing two unlike things that is often introduced by like or as

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William Shakespeare

Father - John Shakespeare Mother - Mary Arden April 23, 1564 - April 23, 1616 Lord Chamberlain's Men

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theater

Drama supposed to be ephemeral, not static Globe

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history

dramatizes a fictional historical event

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romance

More serious form of comedy Strange, fantastic, or supernatural elements

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courtly/poetic love

Falling in love = great emotional disturbances; bewildered, helpless, tortured by mental & physical pain Condition improves when accepted, and he's inspired to great deeds When his happens, Shakespeare rhymes

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Petrarchan conceit

used by Italian poet Petrarch in his sonnets Elaborate & exaggerated comparisons expressing in extravagant terms the beauty, cruelty, and charm of the beloved and the suffering, sorrow, and despair of the forlorn love Oxymorons common

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plot structure

Act I - Exposition, Exciting Force, Rising Action Act II - Rising Action Act III - Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action Act IV - Falling Action Act V - Falling Action, Catastrophe

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hyperbole

an exaggeration made for humor or emphasis

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antecedent

(of a pronoun) the noun for which the pronoun stands

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irony

an inconsistency between appearance and reality

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verbal irony

A speaker or writer says one thing but actually means the opposite Scarcasm, overstatement (hyperbole), and understatement, are all types of verbal irony

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situational irony

the outcome of a situation is inconsistent with what we expect would logically or normally occur

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dramatic irony

the audience or the reader is aware of something that a character does not know

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pun

a play on words, especially those that sound alike, but have different meanings

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prediction

when authors foreshadow, we can make these educated guesses as to what will happen next

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theme

the central idea or message in a work of literature

plot, characters, setting, mood, and even the title, are important in determing the message

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universal theme

ideas to which ppl across time and cultures can relate

Shakespeare known for telling stories with these

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noun of direct address

the name or descriptive term by which a person is addressed

Ex: Well, Juliet, I'll be with thee tonight.