Politeal region and Posterior leg Flashcards Preview

SMS Week 4 > Politeal region and Posterior leg > Flashcards

Flashcards in Politeal region and Posterior leg Deck (60):
1

What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?


biceps femoris

semitendinosus and semimembranosus

gastrocnemius

skin/fascia

2


What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?


popliteal artery and vein

common fibular and tibial nerves

fat and lymph nodes

small saphenous vein

3


What is the popliteal artery a continuation of? Where does the name change occur?


It's a continuation of the femoral artery

name changes at the adductor hiatus

4

What type of fracture will put the pepliteal artery (and tibial nerve) at risk?


dstal femur fractures

5


The popliteal artery gives rise to what branches that supply the knee?


the genicular arteries:

superior medial

superior lateral

inferior medial

inferior lateral

6


Where does the small saphenous vein begin?

What does it empty into?


starts on the lateral side of the dorsal venous network of the foot

passes behind the lateral malleolus up the back of the leg

empties into the pepliteal vein

7


What nerve accompanies the small saphenous vein?


the sural vein

8


How can the common fibular nerve be injured?


from fracture of the neck of the fibula or from pressure from a cast

this is because the common fibular nerve winds around the head of the fibula in the subcutaneous tissue

9


Under cover from the fibularis longus, the common fibular nerve divides into what?


the superficial and deep fibular nerves

10


THe sural nerve is a combination of what two branches?


the medial sural cutaneous nerve (from the tibial nerve) and the lateral sural cutaneous nerve (from the common fibular nerve) via the sural communicating branch

11


What cutaneous nerve supplies the back of the pepliteal region?


the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh

12


What forms the compartments of the leg?


the anterior and posterior crurual intermuscular septa (as extensions of the deep crurual fascia) and the tibia

13


What are the three compartments of the leg called?


anterior

lateral

posterior (deep and superficial)

14


What divides the anterior and posterior compartments of the leg?


the itnerosseous membrane between the tibia and the fibula

15


What divides the posterior compartment into deep and superficial areas?


the transvers intermuscular septum

16


What are the three eg muscles in the superficial posterior group?


gastrocnemius

plantaris

soleus

17


Where does the gastrocnemius originate? Insert?


the lateral head inserts on the lateral condule of the femur while the medial head is on the pepliteal surface of the femor, superior to the medial condyle

it inserts on the powerior surface of the calcanius via the calcaneal tendon

18


What does the gastrocnemius do?


it flexes the knee joint and plantarflexes the foot joint at the ankle

19


what innervates the gastrocnemius?


tibial nerve

20


Where does the plantaris originate and insert?


orginates on the inferior end of the lateral supracondylar line of the femor, as well as the oblique popliteal ligament

it inserts on the posterior surface of the calcaneus - but probably not thorugh the calcaneal tendone

21


What is the plantaris analogous to in the forearm?


palmarus longus

22

What does the plantaris do?


is plantarflexes the foot at the anke joint and weakly flexes the knee joint (used to tendon grafts since it's so redundant)

23

Wht nerve innervates the plantaris?


tibial nerve

24

What is the plantaris tenodn often mistaken for?


the tibial nerve

25

Where is the soleus located?


deep to the gastrocnemius

26

What does the soleus do?


it's a slow platnarflexor of the ankle joint - an antigravity muscle that contracts alternately with the extensor muscles of the leg to maintain balance

27


What nerve innervates the soleus?


tibial nerve

28


What are the 4 muscles of the posterior deep grooup?

popliteus

flexor digitorum longus

tibialis posterior

flexor hallucis longus

29


What nerve innervates the posterior deep group of muscles?


the tibial nerve

30

Where does the popliteus originate and insert?


originates just above the soleus muscle and crosses thorugh the knee between the lateral meniscus and fibular collateral ligament to insert on the femur

31

What is the interesting function of the popliteus?


It flexes the knee joint and unlocks the knee by lateral rotation of the femur on the tibia

32

What is the strongest plantarflexor? Is it also the fastest?


the soleus is the strongest, but it's slow - the gastrocnemius is the fast one

33

Does the soleus act on the knee joint?


no - diesn't cross it, so only works at the ankle joint

34

In the proximal leg, what is the order (from medial to lateral) of the deep compartment?


1. flexor digitorum longus

2. tibialis posterior

3. flexor hallucis longus

Dick, Tim, Harry

35

Where does the flexor digitorum longus insert?


it splits into 4 tendons that insert on the base of the distal phalanges of the lateral four toes

36

WHere does the tibialise poserior insert?


it inserts into the tarsal bones and base of metatarsals, running along the interosseous membrane

37

Where does the flexor hallucis longus insert?


on the distal phalanx of the great toe

38

What does the flexor digitorum lungus do? WHat does the tibialis posterior do? WHat does the flexor hallucis longus do?


FDL: plantarflexes the ankle joint and flexes lateral 4 digits

the tibialis posterior plantarflexes the ankle joint and inverts the foot.

the FHL flexes the great toe

39


Down at the ankle, the deep leg muscles cross under what structure? In what order now?


under the flexor retinaculum

the tibialis posterior crosses under the flexor digtorum longus, so the order is...

Tim's Dick And Now Harry's

 

tibialis posterior

flexor digitorum longus

tibial artery

tibial nerve

flexor hallucis longus

40

How does the tibial nerve enter the posterior compartment of the leg?

WHat does it run between?


it enters the posterior compartment between the heads of the gastrocnemius

it runs between the deep and superficial muscle groups, deep to the transverse crurual intermuscular septum

41

The tibial nerve will divide into what two branches in the sole of the foot?


the medial and lateral plantar nerves

42


What is the plantar reflex testing. What is normal? WHat is abnormal?


the plantar reflex (of L4-S2) is a deep tendon reflex

you stroke the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot from heel to great toe

normal is curling the toe slightly

abnormal is a Babinski's sign - slight flaying and extension of the great toe

43

How is the calcaneal tendon reflex tested? What's normal?


You strike the achilles tendon with a reflex hammer

normal response is plantarflexion of the ankle joint

44

In regards to the calcaneal tendon reflex, the following would suggest what?

absent

delayed

reduced


absent = sciatic nerve pathology

delayed = hypothyroidism

reduced = peripheral neuropathy

45

THe tibial nerve is hard to injure because of it's deep location in the popliteal foss and posterioa compartment, but how can it be? WHat would happen?


deep lacerations

posterior dislocation of the knee joint

you'd lose the function of the posterior compartment of the leg and the intrinsic muscles of the sole of the foot

46

popliteal artery divides into what?


the posterior and anterior tibial artery

47

What does the posterior tibial artery divide into?


the fibular artery (peroneal artery)

and the medial/lateral plantar arterial branches to the foot

48

What holds the deep flexor muscle tendons in place in the ankle?


the flexor retinaculum

49

Where does the flexor retinaculum span from?


from the medial malleolus to the calcaneus

50

What is the most severe, acute muscualr problem of the leg?


calcaneal tendon rupture

can occur in those who have a hx of tendinitis of the tendon - or just as an acute injury

51

What happens in tennis leg?


is a muscle strain of the medial head of the gastrocnemius

occures in middle aged men who try to play tennis - full extension fo the knee with dorsiflexion of the ankle at the same time

52

What is a baker's cyst?

Where do they occur?


It's a popliteal cyst

it occurs when any sort of inflammation affects the knee joint and causes effusion of synovial fluid

53

Popliteal aneurysms are often asymptomatic, but what's the main concern with them?


that clots in the aneurysm will interfere with blood flow to the lower extremity - amputation may be the result so surgical repair is often called for even though the aneurysm is unlikely to rupture

54

Which leg bone bears the weight of the body (and it bigger)?


the tibia

55

Which leg bone articulates with the femur


the tibia (fibula does not participate)

56

What lies between the lateral condyle and medial condyle of the tibia?


the tibial plateau

57

THe interosseous membrane between the fibula and tibia is what type of joint?


 syndesmosis

58


the knee joint involves a hinge joint between the ___ and ___

and a plane/gliding joint between the ___ and the ____


hunge between the femur and tibia

plane between the femur and the patella

59

Which bone of the foot do the two leg bones articulate with in a hinge joint?


the talus

60