Upper Extremity Clinical Correlates Flashcards Preview

SMS Week 4 > Upper Extremity Clinical Correlates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Extremity Clinical Correlates Deck (26):
1

What is the issue with articular surface injuries?


they need to be made perfectly straight otherwise joint pain will contrinue and you may still have dysfunciton or permanent arthritis - you do NOT want to have jagged cartilage

2


What is a dislocation?

What do you call it when you fix a dislocation?


when a bone goes completely out of anatomical alignment

fixing it is called reduction

3

What happens when you subluxate a bone?


it goes partially out of anatomic alignment

4

If there is a rotator cuff pathology with abduction, what muscle is the issue?

supreascapular

( if not rotator cuff, then probably deltoid)

5

If there is a rotator cuff pathology dealing with internal rotation, what muscle is it?


the subscapularis

6

IF there is a rotator cuff pathology with external rotation, what muscle is the culprit?


infraspinatus or teres minor

7

In what group is rotator cuff pathology more likely?


in the elderly - it often involves age-related degenerative tears or tendon degenerative processes

it's less common in young athletes or acut injuries

8

Why is it harder to fix rotator cuff injuries that are old?


the long standing tears can lead to tendon retraction and muscle degeneration, making complete repair difficult or impossible

9

What are some of the potential locations for a "shoulder dislocation"?


1. sternoclavicular

2. acromiclavicular

3. scapulothoracic (this takes A LOT of energy)

4. glenohumeral - this is the big one people usually associate with shoulder dislocations

10

What direction do most glenohumeral dislocations go?


anterior (and inferior0

11

posterior shoulder dislocations are unusual, but what are some situations in which they can occur?


electrocution or seizure

12

What X-ray view is best for looking for shoulder locations?


the axillary view (because you can see if it's anterior or posterior to the bone)

13

What nerves are likely to be injured with a midshaft humerus fracture? How about a distal humerus fracture?


midshaft - radial nerve

distal - usually the median, but sometimes the ulnar

14


In what type of humerus fracture are vascular injuries more likely to occur?


can occur with open injuries or lacerations, very rare with closed injuries

15

True or fals:

the humerus shaft will not tolerate angulation or rotation deformity.


falst - it will tolerate

16


What are the two tendonitises you can get in the elbow?


lateral epicondylitis = tennis elbow

medial epicondylitis = golfer's elbow

17

In children, what type of elbow dislocation is most common?


nuremaid's elbow - dislocation of the radial head from a traction injury (low energy)

18

In adults, when is a dislocation more worrisome?


when there is a fracture involved - a fracture dislocation

19

Why is bone alignment so important in the forearm?


the radius has to be able to rotate around the staionary ulna - this means changes in bone shape are not well tolerated

20

What are the two places in the wrist that are most likely to be fractures?


the distal radius and the scaphoid

21


Will carpal tunnel syndrome cause numbness in the palm? How about loss of strengh in thenar muscles?


no to palm numbness, yes to loss of strength in thenar muscles

22

What three sets of muscles do you lose function in with an ulnar nerve injury?


the intrinsic muscles of the hand:

1/2 of the lumbricals

the dorsal interossei

the palmar interossei

23

What are the two main places the ulnar nerve can be irritated?


in the cubital fossa of the elbow

in the guyon canal of the wrist

24

Injury to what radial branch will lose thumb and finger extension but keep sensation? How about lose sensation but keep motor function?


posterior interosseous nerve damage will retain sensation

superficial branch of radial nerve damage will retain motor function

an injury higher up in the axilla will lose both

25

THe intrinsic muscles of the hand will cause what in the MC joints and what in the IP joins?


MP: flexion

IPs: extension

26