Upper Extremity Clinical Correlates Flashcards Preview

SMS Week 4 > Upper Extremity Clinical Correlates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Extremity Clinical Correlates Deck (26):

What is the issue with articular surface injuries?

they need to be made perfectly straight otherwise joint pain will contrinue and you may still have dysfunciton or permanent arthritis - you do NOT want to have jagged cartilage


What is a dislocation?

What do you call it when you fix a dislocation?

when a bone goes completely out of anatomical alignment

fixing it is called reduction


What happens when you subluxate a bone?

it goes partially out of anatomic alignment


If there is a rotator cuff pathology with abduction, what muscle is the issue?


( if not rotator cuff, then probably deltoid)


If there is a rotator cuff pathology dealing with internal rotation, what muscle is it?

the subscapularis


IF there is a rotator cuff pathology with external rotation, what muscle is the culprit?

infraspinatus or teres minor


In what group is rotator cuff pathology more likely?

in the elderly - it often involves age-related degenerative tears or tendon degenerative processes

it's less common in young athletes or acut injuries


Why is it harder to fix rotator cuff injuries that are old?

the long standing tears can lead to tendon retraction and muscle degeneration, making complete repair difficult or impossible


What are some of the potential locations for a "shoulder dislocation"?

1. sternoclavicular

2. acromiclavicular

3. scapulothoracic (this takes A LOT of energy)

4. glenohumeral - this is the big one people usually associate with shoulder dislocations


What direction do most glenohumeral dislocations go?

anterior (and inferior0


posterior shoulder dislocations are unusual, but what are some situations in which they can occur?

electrocution or seizure


What X-ray view is best for looking for shoulder locations?

the axillary view (because you can see if it's anterior or posterior to the bone)


What nerves are likely to be injured with a midshaft humerus fracture? How about a distal humerus fracture?

midshaft - radial nerve

distal - usually the median, but sometimes the ulnar


In what type of humerus fracture are vascular injuries more likely to occur?

can occur with open injuries or lacerations, very rare with closed injuries


True or fals:

the humerus shaft will not tolerate angulation or rotation deformity.

falst - it will tolerate


What are the two tendonitises you can get in the elbow?

lateral epicondylitis = tennis elbow

medial epicondylitis = golfer's elbow


In children, what type of elbow dislocation is most common?

nuremaid's elbow - dislocation of the radial head from a traction injury (low energy)


In adults, when is a dislocation more worrisome?

when there is a fracture involved - a fracture dislocation


Why is bone alignment so important in the forearm?

the radius has to be able to rotate around the staionary ulna - this means changes in bone shape are not well tolerated


What are the two places in the wrist that are most likely to be fractures?

the distal radius and the scaphoid


Will carpal tunnel syndrome cause numbness in the palm? How about loss of strengh in thenar muscles?

no to palm numbness, yes to loss of strength in thenar muscles


What three sets of muscles do you lose function in with an ulnar nerve injury?

the intrinsic muscles of the hand:

1/2 of the lumbricals

the dorsal interossei

the palmar interossei


What are the two main places the ulnar nerve can be irritated?

in the cubital fossa of the elbow

in the guyon canal of the wrist


Injury to what radial branch will lose thumb and finger extension but keep sensation? How about lose sensation but keep motor function?

posterior interosseous nerve damage will retain sensation

superficial branch of radial nerve damage will retain motor function

an injury higher up in the axilla will lose both


THe intrinsic muscles of the hand will cause what in the MC joints and what in the IP joins?

MP: flexion

IPs: extension