Flashcards in Political- Establishment Of Nazi Reigm Deck (36):
Long term factors that contributed to the collapse of Weimar
-Too few people believed in the republic or democracy, authoritarian heritage of Wilhelmina era; many didn't regard it as a legitimate regime
-Republic struggled to throw of myths put in place by RW opponents
-Republic generated too few leaders of great authority and ability
-Democratic constitution had loopholes e.g. Article 48
-Proportional representation lead to unstable short lived governments
-Deep rooted economic difficulties undermined republic
Short term factors that lead to the demise of the republic
-1929 Wall Street crash led to economic crisis
-Political betrayal by RW elites
What was the psychological impact of WW1 that lead to fear amount Germans that aided the fall of Weimar?
The collapse of the world economy brought back fears of indebtness, loss of status, loss of autonomy
What economic failings alienated many middle class from the republic?
-Loss of savings and devaluation of pension in 1923 hyperinflation
Why did the economic depression of the 30s hit Germany so hard?
-Germany was a major exporting nation, but lost trade as world trade collapsed by a third
-Lost American investment
By 1932 how many people were officially unemployed?
In 1932 what level was the output of German economy at?
58% of that in its best period in the 20s
What psychological effect did the depression have on the German public?
-Sense of despair and apathy
-Juvenile suicide rates increased
What problems were in the Reichstag in 1930?
-Inter party disputes were disrupting enacting of legislation
Which chancellor in 1928-30 had problems in the Reichstag?
How did Muller's government weaken faith in parliamentary institutions?
Constant bargaining and negotiating of ways to tackle economic crisis undermined them
Why did Muller resign?
Hindenburg refused to back his government with emergency powers
What was Muller's resignation a turning point for?
The Reichstag- it was now increasingly marginalised - power was largely in control of Hindenburg and his advisors
Chancellor from 1930-32
What did the September 1930 election show
A panic flight to the extremes - with the KPD making gains and the Nazis winning 107 seats
What did the September election 1930 mean for Bruning?
-Stuck in a minority government and increasingly reliant on Article 48
What stat demonstrates the marginalisation of the Reichstag
-Reichstag passed 29 relatively minor bills
-109 emergency decrees ratified by the president
1930-32 who was increasingly wielding political authority?
Army under von Schleicher
What did von Schleicher do in 1932 with his political authority?
Used his influence to get Hindenburg to dismiss Bruning
Who replaced Bruning in 1932?
Why was von Schleicher interested in the Nazis?
-Recognised their strength in the Reichstag and wanted to use them to further his own ambition
-Saw them as a step to implementing authoritarian dictatorship
-Thought the Nazis could be tamed by being brought into government
What did von Schleicher want from Rohm?
-Give SA access to weapons so that they could cause havoc on streets and undermine republic/ democratic institutions as they would look unable to maintain law and order
What did Bruning do under pressure from several German land governments in 13 April 1932?
What did Schleicher do as a result of SA ban?
-Engineered resignation of Groener who opposed Schleichers intention of SA integration into army
-Met with secret in Hitler
-Engineered Brunings dismissal
Why did Schleicher nominate Von Papen?
He thought he could control him better
What did Von Papen do 20 June 1932
Lift ban on SA
What did Papen do July 1932 to remove the last stronghold of democracy?
-Removed Prussian SPD government
-Assumed control as Reich Commissioner of Prussia
-Justified this by saying he needed to bring an end to the street fighting of SA and communists
1932 election result
-NSDAP secures 37% of vote making it the largest party in the Reichstag
How did Hitler worm his way into chancellorship
-All or nothing approach
-Worked with Von Papen to persuade Hindenburg that Hitler should take chancellorship
How did Hitler turn democracy into a dictatorship so quickly?
-Cooperation and coordination with key institutions
The period in which Hitler consolidated his power
How did Hitler exploit his position in order to overthrow democracy?
-Superior position with position as chancellor
-Two other Nazis held important posts
-Employed paramilitary forces SA and SS to intimidate and crush opponents
-Von Blomberg (Defence Minister) was sympathetic to Nazis and ensured the army didn't try to stop Nazi terror attacks
-Successful propaganda campaign portraying Nazis actions as necessary to deal with national emergency
-Influential RW elites threw lot in with Nazis
What two Nazis held what cabinet positions in 1933?
-Goering = Prussian Minister of Interior had direct control over Berlin and was ruthless in purging the Prussian Government and police of all potential opponents- appointing Nazi sympathisers in their place
-Frick = Minister of Interior, key role in drawing up plans for March elections
What did Hitler learn about taking democracy in Munich Putsch?
Had to be taken from within, through legal means
Two pieces of legislation in Hitlers Legal Revolution
-Decree for the Protection of the People and State 1933
-Enabling Act 1933