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Flashcards in Political- Establishment Of Nazi Reigm Deck (36):
1

Long term factors that contributed to the collapse of Weimar

-Too few people believed in the republic or democracy, authoritarian heritage of Wilhelmina era; many didn't regard it as a legitimate regime
-Damaged inheritance
-Republic struggled to throw of myths put in place by RW opponents
-Republic generated too few leaders of great authority and ability
-Democratic constitution had loopholes e.g. Article 48
-Proportional representation lead to unstable short lived governments
-Deep rooted economic difficulties undermined republic

2

Short term factors that lead to the demise of the republic

-1929 Wall Street crash led to economic crisis
-Political betrayal by RW elites

3

What was the psychological impact of WW1 that lead to fear amount Germans that aided the fall of Weimar?

The collapse of the world economy brought back fears of indebtness, loss of status, loss of autonomy

4

What economic failings alienated many middle class from the republic?

-Loss of savings and devaluation of pension in 1923 hyperinflation

5

Why did the economic depression of the 30s hit Germany so hard?

-Germany was a major exporting nation, but lost trade as world trade collapsed by a third
-Lost American investment

6

By 1932 how many people were officially unemployed?

6 million

7

In 1932 what level was the output of German economy at?

58% of that in its best period in the 20s

8

What psychological effect did the depression have on the German public?

-Sense of despair and apathy
-Juvenile suicide rates increased

9

What problems were in the Reichstag in 1930?

-Inter party disputes were disrupting enacting of legislation

10

Which chancellor in 1928-30 had problems in the Reichstag?

Muller

11

How did Muller's government weaken faith in parliamentary institutions?

Constant bargaining and negotiating of ways to tackle economic crisis undermined them

12

Why did Muller resign?

Hindenburg refused to back his government with emergency powers

13

What was Muller's resignation a turning point for?

The Reichstag- it was now increasingly marginalised - power was largely in control of Hindenburg and his advisors

14

Chancellor from 1930-32

Bruning

15

What did the September 1930 election show

A panic flight to the extremes - with the KPD making gains and the Nazis winning 107 seats

16

What did the September election 1930 mean for Bruning?

-Stuck in a minority government and increasingly reliant on Article 48

17

What stat demonstrates the marginalisation of the Reichstag

1930-32
-Reichstag passed 29 relatively minor bills
-109 emergency decrees ratified by the president

18

1930-32 who was increasingly wielding political authority?

Army under von Schleicher

19

What did von Schleicher do in 1932 with his political authority?

Used his influence to get Hindenburg to dismiss Bruning

20

Who replaced Bruning in 1932?

Von Papen

21

Why was von Schleicher interested in the Nazis?

-Recognised their strength in the Reichstag and wanted to use them to further his own ambition
-Saw them as a step to implementing authoritarian dictatorship
-Thought the Nazis could be tamed by being brought into government

22

What did von Schleicher want from Rohm?

-Closer links
-Give SA access to weapons so that they could cause havoc on streets and undermine republic/ democratic institutions as they would look unable to maintain law and order

23

What did Bruning do under pressure from several German land governments in 13 April 1932?

Banned SA

24

What did Schleicher do as a result of SA ban?

-Engineered resignation of Groener who opposed Schleichers intention of SA integration into army
-Met with secret in Hitler
-Engineered Brunings dismissal

25

Why did Schleicher nominate Von Papen?

He thought he could control him better

26

What did Von Papen do 20 June 1932

Lift ban on SA

27

What did Papen do July 1932 to remove the last stronghold of democracy?

-Removed Prussian SPD government
-Assumed control as Reich Commissioner of Prussia
-Justified this by saying he needed to bring an end to the street fighting of SA and communists

28

1932 election result

-NSDAP secures 37% of vote making it the largest party in the Reichstag

29

How did Hitler worm his way into chancellorship

-All or nothing approach
-Worked with Von Papen to persuade Hindenburg that Hitler should take chancellorship

30

How did Hitler turn democracy into a dictatorship so quickly?

-Legal revolution
-Terror
-Cooperation and coordination with key institutions

31

Gleichschaltung

The period in which Hitler consolidated his power

32

How did Hitler exploit his position in order to overthrow democracy?

-Superior position with position as chancellor
-Two other Nazis held important posts
-Employed paramilitary forces SA and SS to intimidate and crush opponents
-Von Blomberg (Defence Minister) was sympathetic to Nazis and ensured the army didn't try to stop Nazi terror attacks
-Successful propaganda campaign portraying Nazis actions as necessary to deal with national emergency
-Influential RW elites threw lot in with Nazis

33

What two Nazis held what cabinet positions in 1933?

-Goering = Prussian Minister of Interior had direct control over Berlin and was ruthless in purging the Prussian Government and police of all potential opponents- appointing Nazi sympathisers in their place
-Frick = Minister of Interior, key role in drawing up plans for March elections

34

What did Hitler learn about taking democracy in Munich Putsch?

Had to be taken from within, through legal means

35

Two pieces of legislation in Hitlers Legal Revolution

-Decree for the Protection of the People and State 1933
-Enabling Act 1933

36

What did the Decree for the Protection of the People and State allow?

-Suspended constitutional rights