Polyps Flashcards Preview

Clin Med 2 > Polyps > Flashcards

Flashcards in Polyps Deck (23):
1

4 parts of large intestine

ascending
transverse
descending
sigmoid

2

Fxn of large intestine

remove water, salt and form stool

3

Clinical polyps

- asymptomatic
- bright red blood per rectum
- rectal tenesmus
- change in bowel habits (severe)

4

sessile

base attached to colonic wall

5

pedunculated

mucosal stalk between polyp and wall

6

flat

height is less than the base of the diameter

7

depressed

depression into colonic wall

8

5 types of non-neoplastic polyps

mucosal
inflammatory pseudopolyps
hyperplastic
submucosal
hamartamous

9

Mucosal polyp

- small <5mm
- resembles adjacent tissue and is histologically normal

10

Inflammatory pseudopolyps

-irregularly shaped islands of intact mucosa due to ulcerations and regeneration
- commonly seen in patients with IBD

11

Hyperplastic polyp

most common non-neoplastic polyp

12

Submucosal polyp

- lipoma is most common; yellow and soft; pillow sign

13

Hamartamous polyps

- grow in disorganized fashion
- non-neoplastic but certain syndromes can cause them to become CRC

14

Adenomatous polyps

- 2/3 of colonic polyps
- benign tumor of glandular tissue
- take 7-10yrs to become adenocarcinoma

15

RF for adenomatous polyps

- old age
- increased BMI
- lack of physical activity
- men
- smoking

16

prevention for adenomatous polyps

- low fat diet, high in fruit, veggies, fiber
- normal body weight and exercise
- decrease in alcohol (beer)
- aspirin daily
- COX-2 agents

17

Tubular adenoma

80% of colonic adenoma and small risk of developing into CRC

18

Villous adenoma

highest risk of developing into crc

19

Characteristics associated with increase CRC risk

1. villous histology
2. high grade dysplasia
3. number and size- more than 1 over 1cm or more than 3 any size

20

Diagnosis adenomatous polyps

Fecal Occult Blood Testing
Double Contrast Barium Enema
CT colonography
Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
Colonoscopy

21

Gold standard for adenomatous polyps

colonoscopy

22

Pro and Con to colonoscopy

Pro
-direct visualization and can remove polyps visualized
Con
-perforation
-significant bleeding
-intolerance to sedation
-dehydration/electrolyte imbalance in elderly

23

Tx adenomatous polyps

polypectomy