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SMS Week 3 > Popliteal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Popliteal Deck (11):
1

Popliteal Fossa and boundaries

: a diamond shaped depression posterior to the knee joint.

Boundaries:
1. superolaterally-biceps femoris
2. superomedially-semitendinosus and semimembranosus
inferiorly-both heads of the gastrocnemius
Floor is popliteal surface of the femur
Roof-skin and popliteal fascia

2

sural nerve

S1,S2, dermatome for lateral posterior calf and foot

3

tibial nerve

L4-S3

4

Common Fibular

L4-S2

5

Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

dermatome for popliteal and posterior leg

6

Baker or popliteal cysts

A Baker cyst is swelling caused by fluid from the knee joint protruding to the back of the knee. When an excess of knee joint fluid is compressed by the body weight between the bones of the knee joint, it can become trapped and separate from the joint to form the fluid-filled sac of a Baker cyst. The name of the cyst is in memory of the physician who originally described the condition, the British surgeon William Morrant Baker (1839-1896).

Baker cysts are common and can be caused by virtually anything causing joint swelling (arthritis). The excess joint fluid (synovial fluid) bulges to the back of the knee to form the Baker cyst. The most common type of arthritis associated with Baker cysts is osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis. Baker cysts can occur in children with juvenile arthritis of the knee. Baker cysts also can result from cartilage tears (such as a torn meniscus), rheumatoid arthritis, and other knee problems.

7

Popliteal aneurysms

rarely have symptoms. They are often discovered during routine examination. They are more likely to occur in the older population, and in men > women. These types of aneurysms do not rupture frequently but the blood clot can reduce blood flow to the foot, potentially cutting blood completely from the foot and necessitating amputation. Surgical repair is usually straightforward, successful and durable. Rupture is rare but requires immediate surgery to preserve the limb.

8

gastrocnemius

Originates from lateral and medial condyles and inserts on the posterior surface of the calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon. Tibial nerve – S1, S2

9

Tennis leg

strain of the medial head of the gastrocnemius occurring in individuals who are poorly conditioned and over the age of 40. (Moore, p. 607) caused by
sudden and abrupt changes of direction to bring about a tear in the calf muscle

10

Popliteus

rotates femur laterally on fixed tibia about 5 degrees to unlock knee when in full extension

11

posterior compartment of leg

Nerve Supply: Tibial Nerve
Blood Supply: Posterior Tibial Artery and Fibular Artery
Muscle Actions: Flexion of the knee joint
Plantarflexion of Ankle
Flexion of Toes