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Flashcards in Population Deck (12):

ELDC Pyramids

-Thin top: high death rates.
-Fat bottom: High birth rates.
- Narrows quickly at the bottom: High infant mortality.


Reasons and Problems of ELDC Pyramid

-High birth rates:
Earlier age of marriage in many ELDCs.
Impact of religion (do not approve of contraception)
Lack of family planning and birth control.
Children are required to look after parents when they grow old as there are no pensions in ELDCs so people have more.
High infant mortality and so people have more children to make up for their loss.
-Relatively High death rates:
Poor sanitation and water supplies (diseases are common)
Poor health care (fewer doctors, nurses, clinics and, hospitals.
Lack of vaccination.
Poor diet due to drought, floods etc (people become malnourished and weak)
-Need for more schools and teachers as there are so many young people to be educated.
-Need for maternity care, more vaccines, and doctors for children being born.
-Need for increased food production as there are more mouths to feed.
ELDCs sometimes cannot afford these measures.


What has been done to Reduce Birth Rates (case study)

China's one-child policy
-People were only allowed, one child.
-If they stuck to the rule, they would have benefits (access to more services)
-They were fined and cut off from any benefits.
-Some women were sterilized and their children were taken from them.
-Those who had more than one child didn't receive these benefits and were fined.
-Some women were forced to have abortions and were sterilized
-Due to a traditional preference for boys, large numbers of female babies have ended up homeless or in orphanages, and in some cases killed.
-The birth rate in China has fallen from 33 to 13 (300,000 births)
-As a result, the gender balance of the Chinese population has become distorted.


EMDC Pyramids

-More females than males: they have a higher life expectancy.
-Fat top middle: Large amount of elderly dependants (large life expectancy)
-smaller bottom: Decreasing birth rate.
-Expanding from the bottom: Low infant mortality.


Reasons and Problems of EMDC Pyramid

-Low birth rates:
Lower marriage age in the UK (now 30 is the average)
Birth control, contraception and family planning are widely available.
Children are seen as an economic burden (very expensive)
More women are going to work instead of staying and home meaning they have fewer children.
-Long life expectancy:
Excellent health care, doctors, and nurses.
Widespread vaccination against the disease.
Good diet and few are malnourished.
Excellent sanitation and clean water supplies.
-Aging population due to the low birth rate and high life expectancy.
-Need for more geriatric care for the increasing elderly population.
- Fewer people of working age to support the growing number of elderly dependants (not enough taxes to pay pensions)
-Because of the lack of money for pensions, the retirement age will likely rise.
-Schools and maternity wards may have to close and people might lose their jobs due to a reduction in the younger population.


Solutions for Ageing Population

-Increase taxes, very unpopular.
-Put up the age people can collect their old age pension, saves the government money.
-Encourage migration from abroad (can lead to racism and prejudice towards the migrants.


Solutions for Falling Birth Rates

-Some EU countries are paying families to have more children to boost the birth rate.
-Improve maternity pay and benefits for working women to start families, paternity leaves also.
-Increased child benefits.
-Provide work creches to encourage mothers to go back to work.


Push and Pull Factors of Rural to Urban Migration

-Poorly paid jobs often as subsistence farming.
-Machinery on farms creating unemployment.
-Poverty and a low standard of living.
-Crop failure (caused by drought or flooding)
-Poor Health facilities, few doctors, and disease is common.
-Poor education and little prospects for future generations.
-Little entertainment especially for children.
-More chance of getting a job and making more money.
-Better schools.
-Good reports from members of the family who previously moved there.
-Food supplies readily available.
-Better healthcare with access to hospitals.
-Schools, universities, and colleges offering children a better future.
-Bright lights and entertainment.


Measuring Development (economic, social and combined)

-GDP: Gross domestic product (the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year)
-GNP: Gross national product (the total value of goods produced and services provided by a country during one year, equal to the gross domestic product plus the net income from foreign investments)
Problems: These are averages, they do not show differences between rural and urban health, there is no reference to the quality of life and, they are subject to exchange rates.
-% population employed in farming.
-The number of cars per household.
-Energy consumed per household.
-Birthrate/death rate.
-Infant mortality rate.
-Life expectancy.
-Adult literacy rates.
-The number of people per doctor.
-Calories consumed per person per day.
Problems: These are averages and they do not tell differences within countries.
-PQLI: Physical Quality of Life Index (life expectancy, infant mortality and adult literacy) Index of 0-100 and the higher the value the higher the development.
-HDI: Human Development Index (life expectancy, literacy, GNP, cost of living and school enrollment.
Best option because: It is a much more reliable way of measuring development and it is easy to compare nations.


Reasons for Low Development Level (Physical and Human)

-Climate: Cold areas have short growing seasons and are often remote. Dry areas often have draughts, leading to famine and malnutrition. Very wet areas (rainforest) has dense forest which hinders transport. Hot and humid conditions are common for diseases.
-Relief: Mountainous areas are remote and difficult to build/farm on.
-Resources: Few valuable minerals to trade with (diamonds, gold), or fuels for industry (coal, oil)
-Disasters: Floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes can destroy local infrastructure and crops leading to unemployment and debt.
-Environment: Landlocked countries have no opportunities for trade or tourism.
-Population growth: Rapid growth puts a strain on food, water, housing, and jobs. Overcrowding can lead to shanty towns and slum areas.
-Industry: Large multinational companies will avoid areas with poor transport and unhealthy workers.
-Education: It is difficult to establish industry and services when the population is illiterate.
-Transport: Poor roads and railways mean trades of goods and services are restricted.
-Trade: Developing countries mainly export low-value primary goods. They need to import machinery which can lead to debt. Reliance on one or two crops can cause problems if crops fail.


World Population distribution (physical and human)

-People avoid extremes of weather (eg, the desert, the rainforest, the Arctic) Temperate climates are preferred.
-Mountains and steep slopes discourage settlements (remote, difficulty communicating)
-River valleys encourage farming.
-Where population density is higher.
-Where valuable minerals or fuel is found.
-Coastal locations often have big cities where early trading links grew around.
-Natural harbors.
-Areas with roads.
-Railways and airports.
-People are attracted to areas with wealth and jobs.
-Health, leisure, and education will attract people to an area.


Population Change

Before 1750 (high fluctuating)
-High death rates.
-Disease outbreaks.
-High death rates.
-Agricultural society.
1750-1850 )early expanding)
-Birth rates still high (lack of contraception)
-Death rates fall.
-Vaccinations start.
1850-1940 (late expanding)
-The industrial revolution led to better sanitation and water supplies (death rate lowering).
-Birth rates begin to fall as laws to stop child labor.
1940-2000 (low fluctuating)
-Birth rates decreasing (more widely available contraception and family planning) also a desire for a smaller family and an increase in career women.
-Death rates falling due to vaccinations and advances in medicine.
After 2000 (aging population)
-Birth rates are still low.
-Life expectancy very high.