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Flashcards in Populations in Transition Deck (19)
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Give one impact of Singapore's population policy

a ‘cultural shift’ in Singapore that saw women pursuing education to a greater degree, assuming higher positions in companies etc. This in turn meant that fewer women were having large families and that babies were born when women were of an older age.


Define the term: Youthful Population

A high proportion of young people (under the age of 15) due to high birth rates and a decrease in infant mortality.


Define the term: Ageing Population

A rise in the median age of the population usually associated with an increase in the proportion of old dependents


How will an ageing population in Singapore alter spending by the government within the country and who will this likely impact?

It is likely to increase spending on social services e.g. healthcare. This will put a burden on the working population with the government imposing heavier taxes on the working population to sustain their increased expenditure on medical resources and social services for the elderly.


How might an ageing population alter investment from a MNC?

The country will look less attractive to multinational companies who are faced with a smaller talent pool from which to draw their workers, the country’s economy will become less productive and a smaller consumer market is less productive and a smaller consumer market is less attractive to business.


What impact did the post WW2 baby boom have on Singapore's economy?

The baby boom of the 1950s and 60s is now starting to have negative effects on Singapore’s economy. The population born in that era are now verging on retirement age, meaning a large, previously reliable sector of the labour force will not only disappear, but also need to be cared and looked after.


How is Singapore attempting to overcome the challenges it now faces with an aging population? (4 methods)

Raising the retirement age to 65 from 62 = more expertise in the workplace for longer and more economically active reducing the burden on social services and public spending.

Encourage young economically active workers to remain and live with their parents up until either at least 30, or when they get married. They give economic incentives and priority housing to those who follow this path.

Workers are forced to deposit a certain percentage of their earnings into future medical (MEDISAVE) and pension expenses, so that the government does not have to pay when the time comes.

Encourage the in migration of economically active people who can marry and have children in Singapore whilst also supporting the economy and elderly through tax contributions.


What does the dependency ratio look like?

Number of elderly dependents (65+) + number of youthful dependents (0-14) / the economically active population

x 100


What characteristics typify a country with an aging population?

Typically HIC
Good healthcare services
Low-ish BRs
Higher GDP per capita


Does Kenya have an elderly or youthful population and what is the statistic?

Youthful population 75:100


What is the UKs total dependency ratio?



What problems are there with the dependency ratio as a measure?

It is very crude.
In LICs, young people may start working earlier
Retirement ages vary (not all over 65s are elderly dependents)
Many of economically active age are not necessarily working yet are factored into the calculation
In HICs children may stay dependent for longer as they are in education until 18 (e.g. UK)


How might population policies alter dependency ratios?

They can encourage or discourage an increase in the BR which will alter the number of youthful dependents in a population. This varies depending on whether you are looking at a country with a youthful population (typically discourages more births) or a country with an elderly population (may encourage them more to increase the economically active cohort).


How might the existing size of a population alter a country's dependency ratio?

If there is a large percentage of the population in child bearing age in the country, the dependency ratio will rise. This is because, there will be more births and therefore more young dependents resulting in a larger dependency ratio.


How might life expectancy alter a country's dependency ratio?

As life expectancy increases there will be more people living longer, therefore there will be more elderly dependents, this therefore results in a change in the dependency ratio - most notably the elderly dependency ratio which will likely increase.


Describe the shape of a high fluctuating (stage 1) country's population pyramid?

Typically Concave
Wide base indicating a high BR
Concave shape indicates a high DR
Narrow peak suggests a relativity low LE


In what stage of the DTM does the BR begin to fall?

Late expanding (stage 3)


When the DR exceeds the BR what do we call it?

Natural Decrease


In what stage of the DTM is natural decrease evident?

Stage 5 (sometimes called declining)