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Flashcards in Portuguese Verbs Basics Deck (155):
1

What are the main subject pronouns used in Portuguese?

  • eu (I)
  • tu (the singular "you")
  • ele/ela (he/she)
  • nós (we)
  • vós (the plural "you")
  • eles/elas (they)

2

How is você used as a subject pronoun?

Você (or its plural form vocês) is an alternative for the second-person pronouns -- tu and vós. However, although it technically refers to a second person ("you" or "you all"), it is used with third-person conjugations.

Example: Tu gostas de música" = Você gosta de música" = "You like music"

3

What are the usual formal and informal treatments in Brazilian Portuguese?

In Brazilian Portuguese, você is the standard informal treatment, and is replaced by o senhor/a senhora ("Sir"/"Madam") in formal contexts. In very colloquial settings, tu may also be employed, in a grammatically incorrect but generally accepted construction, where it is actually used with third-person conjugations, instead of those for the second person.

Example: "Are you going to do that?"
Você vai fazer isso? [grammatically correct third-person conjugation] 
Tu vai fazer isso? [grammatically incorrect third-person conjugation, but accepted informally] 

The proper usage of tu in Brazilian Portuguese doesn't sound natural in most contexts. In Portugal, however, tu is the standard informal treatment (with the proper second-person conjugations), while você is used formally.

4

What are the three main regular verb groups in Portuguese?

The three groups are as follows: those ending in -AR (1st conjugation), those ending in -ER (2nd conjugation), and those ending in -IR (3rd conjugation).

There are also several irregular verbs that differ in one or multiple forms and that require specific memorization. Verbs ending in -POR, such as pôr (to put), propor (to propose), or compor (to compose), form a particular group of verbs that, despite the differences in form, are traditionally included in the 2nd conjugation group by many linguists.

5

What are the four most commonly used auxiliary verbs?

  • ser (to be)
  • estar (to be)
  • ter (to have)
  • haver (to have)

6

In Portuguese, there are two forms of the past participle. What are they?

They are the regular and irregular past participles. The regular forms end in -ado or -ido while the irregular forms show more variation. Portuguese verbs can have both forms or only one of them.

7

Which auxiliary verbs should be used with the regular and irregular past participles, respectively?

Use regular past participles with ter or haver and irregular past participles with ser or estar.

Note, however, that when Portuguese speakers have to choose between a regular and an irregular past participle, many of them choose the irregular one -- with any of those four auxiliary verbs, not just with ser or estar. This practice is grammatically incorrect, but very common.

Example: I had already paid them.
Eu já lhes tinha pagado. [grammatically correct]
Eu já lhes tinha pago. [technically incorrect, but commonly used]

8

The verbs ser and estar both mean "to be." What is the basic difference between them?

The verbs ser and estar have the same basic meaning, but the former is used to refer to situations that are seen as intrinsic to the subject, permanent, or, at least, long-lasting. The latter, estar, refers to situations that are temporary.

Examples: She is a happy woman.
Ela é uma mulher feliz. [A long-lasting state.]

He is happy at this moment.
Ele está feliz neste momento. [A temporary state.]

9

Are subject pronouns mandatory in Portuguese conjugation?

No. Subject pronouns are frequently omitted whenever the subject is clear, because the verb forms themselves can indicate the subject.

10

In which circumstances is the indicative mood typically used?

To refer to factual or highly probable situations.

11

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the present indicative?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -o
  • -as
  • -a
  • -amos
  • -ais
  • -am

12

Conjugate the verb falar (to speak) in the present tense.

  • eu falo
  • tu falas
  • ele/ela/você fala
  • nós falamos
  • vós falais
  • eles/elas/vocês falam

13

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the present indicative?

Using the verb comer (to eat) as an example:

  • como
  • comes
  • come
  • comemos
  • comeis
  • comem

14

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the present indicative?

Using the verb abrir (to open) as an example:

  • abro
  • abres
  • abre
  • abrimos
  • abris
  • abrem

15

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the present indicative?

Using the verb pôr (to put) as an example:

  • ponho
  • pões
  • põe
  • pomos
  • pondes
  • põem

16

The English and the Portuguese present perfect are structurally similar. However, are they identical in usage?

No. In terms of usage, the present perfect in English would be better matched with the Portuguese simple past. The Portuguese present perfect is actually an equivalent of the English present perfect continuous, describing an action that began in the past but hasn't finished yet. Aside from the present perfect, Portuguese compound tenses are usually similar in all ways to their English counterparts.

17

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the present perfect tense?

Take the present tense of the auxiliary verb (ter or haver) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating. If the verb has two forms for the past participle, use only the regular form.

18

Conjugate the verb falar in the present perfect tense.

  • eu tenho falado
  • tu tens falado
  • ele/ela/você tem falado
  • nós temos falado
  • vós tendes falado
  • eles/elas/vocês têm falado

19

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the present perfect?

  • tenho comido
  • tens comido
  • tem comido
  • temos comido
  • tendes comido
  • têm comido

20

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the present perfect?

  • tenho aberto
  • tens aberto
  • tem aberto
  • temos aberto
  • tendes aberto
  • têm aberto

***Note that this is an irregular past participle. It is used in this case because the verb abrir is considered to have only this form of the past participle.

21

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the present perfect?

  • tenho posto
  • tens posto
  • tem posto
  • temos posto
  • tendes posto
  • têm posto

***This is an irregular past participle.

22

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the imperfect tense?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -ava
  • -avas
  • -ava
  • -ávamos
  • -áveis
  • -avam

23

Conjugate the verb falar in the imperfect tense.

  • eu falava
  • tu falavas
  • ele/ela/você falava
  • nós falávamos
  • vós faláveis
  • eles/elas/vocês falavam

24

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the imperfect indicative?

  • comia
  • comias
  • comia
  • comíamos
  • comíeis
  • comiam

25

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the imperfect indicative?

  • abria
  • abrias
  • abria
  • abríamos
  • abríeis
  • abriam

26

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the imperfect indicative?

  • punha
  • punhas
  • punha
  • púnhamos
  • púnheis
  • punham

27

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the simple past tense?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -ei
  • -aste
  • -ou
  • -amos
  • -astes
  • -aram

28

Conjugate the verb falar in the simple past.

  • eu falei
  • tu falaste
  • ele/ela/você falou
  • nós falamos
  • vós falastes
  • eles/elas/vocês falaram

29

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the simple past?

  • comi
  • comeste
  • comeu
  • comemos
  • comestes
  • comeram

30

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the simple past?

  • abri
  • abriste
  • abriu
  • abrimos
  • abristes
  • abriram

31

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the simple past?

  • pus
  • puseste
  • pôs
  • pusemos
  • pusestes
  • puseram

32

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the pluperfect tense?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -ara
  • -aras
  • -ara
  • -áramos
  • -áreis
  • -aram

33

Conjugate the verb falar in the pluperfect.

  • eu falara
  • tu falaras
  • ele/ela/você falara
  • nós faláramos
  • vós faláreis
  • eles/elas/vocês falaram

34

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the pluperfect?

  • comera
  • comeras
  • comera
  • comêramos
  • comêreis
  • comeram

35

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the pluperfect?

  • abrira
  • abriras
  • abrira
  • abríramos
  • abríreis
  • abriram

36

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the pluperfect?

  • pusera
  • puseras
  • pusera
  • puséramos
  • puséreis
  • puseram

37

What is the difference between the past perfect and the pluperfect?

The difference is merely structural. The Portuguese pluperfect is a simple tense, while the past perfect is a compound tense which requires an auxiliary verb. However, they are applied in the exact same contexts, so they can be used interchangeably.

The pluperfect is considered more formal and is more often seen in written text. Spoken language, especially in informal settings, favors the past perfect.

38

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the past perfect?

Take the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb (ter or haver) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating. If the verb has two forms for the past participle, use only the regular form.

39

Conjugate the verb falar in the past perfect tense.

  • eu tinha falado
  • tu tinhas falado
  • ele/ela/você tinha falado
  • nós tínhamos falado
  • vós tínheis falado
  • eles/elas/vocês tinham falado

40

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the past perfect?

  • tinha comido
  • tinhas comido
  • tinha comido
  • tínhamos comido
  • tínheis comido
  • tinham comido

41

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the past perfect?

  • tinha aberto
  • tinhas aberto
  • tinha aberto
  • tínhamos aberto
  • tínheis aberto
  • tinham aberto

42

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the past perfect?

  • tinha posto
  • tinhas posto
  • tinha posto
  • tínhamos posto
  • tínheis posto
  • tinham posto

43

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the future?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -arei
  • -arás
  • -ará
  • -aremos
  • -areis
  • -arão

44

Conjugate the verb falar in the future.

  • eu falarei
  • tu falarás
  • ele/ela/você falará
  • nós falaremos
  • vós falareis
  • eles/elas/vocês falarão

45

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the future?

  • comerei
  • comerás
  • comerá
  • comeremos
  • comereis
  • comerão

46

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the future?

  • abrirei
  • abrirás
  • abrirá
  • abriremos
  • abrireis
  • abrirão

47

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the future?

  • porei
  • porás
  • porá
  • poremos
  • poreis
  • porão

48

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the future perfect?

Take the future of the auxiliary verb (ter or haver) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating. If the verb has two forms for the past participle, use only the regular form.

49

Conjugate the verb falar in the future perfect.

  • eu terei falado
  • tu terás falado
  • ele/ela/você terá falado
  • nós teremos falado
  • vós tereis falado
  • eles/elas/vocês terão falado

50

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the future perfect?

  • terei comido
  • terás comido
  • terá comido
  • teremos comido
  • tereis comido
  • terão comido

51

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the future perfect?

  • terei aberto
  • terás aberto
  • terá aberto
  • teremos aberto
  • tereis aberto
  • terão aberto

52

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the future perfect?

  • terei posto
  • terás posto
  • terá posto
  • teremos posto
  • tereis posto
  • terão posto

53

In which circumstances is the subjunctive mood typically used?

The subjunctive mood is mostly used to describe hypothetical situations and also to:

  • express hopes and desires
  • express fears, doubts, and disappointment
  • express opinions

It is commonly found in subordinate clauses that begin with que (that), se (if), or quando (when).

54

What are some common verbs expressing hope and desire that may be followed by the subjunctive?

  • esperar (to wait, to hope)
  • querer (to want)
  • desejar (to wish)

55

Translate to Portuguese: I hope that he has everything.

Eu espero que ele tenha tudo.

Note the que in the beginning of the subordinate clause, with the verb ter appearing in the present subjunctive.

56

What are some common verbs expressing fear, doubt, and disappointment that may be followed by the subjunctive?

  • recear (to fear)
  • lamentar (to be sorry)
  • duvidar (to doubt)

57

Translate to Portuguese: I am sorry this happened.

Eu lamento que isso tenha acontecido.

58

What are some common expressions and verbs expressing opinions that may be followed by the subjunctive?

  • É melhor (it's better)
  • É necessário (it is necessary)
  • Pensar (to think)
  • Acreditar (to believe)

59

Translate to Portuguese: It will be better if she goes too.

Será melhor se ela for também.

Here, the verb ir appears in the future subjunctive, since the sentence addresses a future time.

60

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the present subjunctive?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -e
  • -es
  • -e
  • -emos
  • -eis
  • -em

61

Conjugate the verb falar in the present subjunctive.

  • fale
  • fales
  • fale
  • falemos
  • faleis
  • falem

62

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the present subjunctive?

  • coma
  • comas
  • coma
  • comamos
  • comais
  • comam

63

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the present subjunctive?

  • abra
  • abras
  • abra
  • abramos
  • abrais
  • abram

64

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the present subjunctive?

  • ponha
  • ponhas
  • ponha
  • ponhamos
  • ponhais
  • ponham

65

One of the compound tenses of the subjunctive is conjugated by combining the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb (ter or haver) with the past participle of the main verb. With this in mind, how would you conjugate the verb falar in this tense? And what is this tense called?

It is the present perfect subjunctive, or past subjunctive, and it is called the pretérito perfeito composto do subjuntivo in Portuguese.

The verb falar would be conjugated as follows:

  • tenha falado
  • tenhas falado
  • tenha falado
  • tenhamos falado
  • tenhais falado
  • tenham falado

66

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the present perfect subjunctive?

  • tenha comido
  • tenhas comido
  • tenha comido
  • tenhamos comido
  • tenhais comido
  • tenham comido

67

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the present perfect subjunctive?

  • tenha aberto
  • tenhas aberto
  • tenha aberto
  • tenhamos aberto
  • tenhais aberto
  • tenham aberto

68

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the present perfect subjunctive?

  • tenha posto
  • tenhas posto
  • tenha posto
  • tenhamos posto
  • tenhais posto
  • tenham posto

69

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the imperfect subjunctive?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -asse
  • -asses
  • -asse
  • -ássemos
  • -ásseis
  • -assem

70

Conjugate the verb falar in the imperfect subjunctive.

  • falasse
  • falasses
  • falasse
  • falássemos
  • falásseis
  • falassem

71

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the imperfect subjunctive?

  • comesse
  • comesses
  • comesse
  • comêssemos
  • comêsseis
  • comessem

72

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the imperfect subjunctive?

  • abrisse
  • abrisses
  • abrisse
  • abríssemos
  • abrísseis
  • abrissem

73

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the imperfect subjunctive?

  • pusesse
  • pusesses
  • pusesse
  • puséssemos
  • pusésseis
  • pusessem

74

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the pluperfect subjunctive?

Take the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb (ter or haver) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating. If the verb has two forms for the past participle, use only the regular form.

75

Conjugate the verb falar in the pluperfect subjunctive.

  • tivesse falado
  • tivesses falado
  • tivesse falado
  • tivéssemos falado
  • tivésseis falado
  • tivessem falado

76

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the pluperfect subjunctive?

  • tivesse comido
  • tivesses comido
  • tivesse comido
  • tivéssemos comido
  • tivésseis comido
  • tivessem comido

77

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the pluperfect subjunctive?

  • tivesse aberto
  • tivesses aberto
  • tivesse aberto
  • tivéssemos aberto
  • tivésseis aberto
  • tivessem aberto

78

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the pluperfect subjunctive?

  • tivesse posto
  • tivesses posto
  • tivesse posto
  • tivéssemos posto
  • tivésseis posto
  • tivessem posto

79

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the future subjunctive?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -ar
  • -ares
  • -ar
  • -armos
  • -ardes
  • -arem

80

Conjugate the verb falar in the future subjunctive.

  • falar
  • falares
  • falar
  • falarmos
  • falardes
  • falarem

81

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the future subjunctive?

  • comer
  • comeres
  • comer
  • comermos
  • comerdes
  • comerem

82

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the future subjunctive?

  • abrir
  • abrires
  • abrir
  • abrirmos
  • abrirdes
  • abrirem

83

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the future subjunctive?

  • puser
  • puseres
  • puser
  • pusermos
  • puserdes
  • puserem

84

The subjunctive mood also includes a compound future tense, the future perfect subjunctive. Describe how -AR verbs are conjugated in that tense, knowing that its structure follows the same conjugation pattern as the future perfect indicative (but in a different mood).

Take the future subjunctive of the auxiliary verb (ter or haver) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating. If the verb has two forms for the past participle, use only the regular form.

85

Conjugate the verb falar in the future perfect subjunctive.

  • tiver falado
  • tiveres falado
  • tiver falado
  • tivermos falado
  • tiverdes falado
  • tiverem falado

86

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the future perfect subjunctive?

  • tiver comido
  • tiveres comido
  • tiver comido
  • tivermos comido
  • tiverdes comido
  • tiverem comido

87

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the future perfect subjunctive?

  • tiver aberto
  • tiveres aberto
  • tiver aberto
  • tivermos aberto
  • tiverdes aberto
  • tiverem aberto

88

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the future perfect subjunctive?

  • tiver posto
  • tiveres posto
  • tiver posto
  • tivermos posto
  • tiverdes posto
  • tiverem posto

89

In which circumstances is the conditional mood typically used?

Usually, to describe events that aren't guaranteed to happen and that are dependent on certain conditions. In English, its equivalent is frequently the form "would + verb."

Example: Gostaria de ir com você. I would like to go with you.

90

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the present conditional?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -aria
  • -arias
  • -aria
  • -aríamos
  • -aríeis
  • -ariam

91

Conjugate the verb falar in the present conditional.

  • eu falaria
  • tu falarias
  • ele/ela/você falaria
  • nós falaríamos
  • vós falaríeis
  • eles/elas/vocês falariam

92

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the present conditional?

  • comeria
  • comerias
  • comeria
  • comeríamos
  • comeríeis
  • comeriam

93

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the present conditional?

  • abriria
  • abririas
  • abriria
  • abriríamos
  • abriríeis
  • abririam

94

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the present conditional?

  • poria
  • porias
  • poria
  • poríamos
  • poríeis
  • poriam

95

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the past conditional?

Take the present conditional of the auxiliary verb (ter or haver) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating. If the verb has two forms for the past participle, use only the regular form.

96

Conjugate the verb falar in the past conditional.

  • eu teria falado
  • tu terias falado
  • ele/ela/você teria falado
  • nós teríamos falado
  • vós teríeis falado
  • eles/elas/vocês teriam falado

97

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the past conditional?

  • teria comido
  • terias comido
  • teria comido
  • teríamos comido
  • teríeis comido
  • teriam comido

98

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the past conditional?

  • teria aberto
  • terias aberto
  • teria aberto
  • teríamos aberto
  • teríeis aberto
  • teriam aberto

99

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the past conditional?

  • teria posto
  • terias posto
  • teria posto
  • teríamos posto
  • teríeis posto
  • teriam posto

100

Can the subjunctive and the conditional be used together?

Yes, in the hypothetical sense, to express an improbable or impossible condition:

se + imperfect subjunctive + present conditional (improbability in the present)

Example: Se eu tivesse tempo, eu viria. If I had time, I would come.

se + pluperfect subjunctive + past conditional (impossibility in the past)

Example: Se eu tivesse tido tempo, teria vindo. If I had had time, I would have come.

101

In which circumstances is the imperative mood typically used?

To give orders, suggestions, or advice.

102

How do you conjugate -AR verbs in the imperative tense?

For the second-person singular and second-person plural, add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

  • -a
  • -ai

The first-person singular doesn't exist. The third-person singular and first and third-person plural are the same as the corresponding conjugations of the present subjunctive.

103

Conjugate the verb falar in the imperative.

  • -
  • fala
  • fale
  • falemos
  • falai
  • falem

104

How do you conjugate -ER verbs in the imperative?

  • -
  • come
  • coma
  • comamos
  • comei
  • comam

105

How do you conjugate -IR verbs in the imperative?

  • -
  • abre
  • abra
  • abramos
  • abri
  • abram

106

How do you conjugate verbs ending in -POR in the imperative?

  • -
  • põe
  • ponha
  • ponhamos
  • ponde
  • ponham

107

How do you conjugate verbs in the negative imperative?

The negative imperative is formed with the exact same conjugations as the present subjunctive, but preceded by the adverb não (no/not). Just like in the affirmative imperative, there is no first-person singular form.

108

Conjugate falar in the negative imperative.

  • -
  • não fales
  • não fale
  • não falemos
  • não faleis
  • não falem

109

How do you form the gerund of verbs from each conjugation group?

  • For verbs of the 1st conjugation (-AR verbs), add the ending -ando to the stem of the verb.
  • For verbs of the 2nd conjugation (-ER verbs), add the ending -endo to the stem of the verb.
  • For verbs of the 3rd conjugation (-IR verbs), add the ending -indo to the stem of the verb.
  • In the case of the verb pôr and its derivatives, add the ending -ondo to the stem of the verb.

110

Write the gerund of the following -AR verbs:

  • falar (to speak)
  • brincar (to play)
  • cantar (to sing)

  • falando
  • brincando
  • cantando

111

Write the gerund of the following -ER verbs:

  • comer (to eat)
  • beber (to drink)
  • crescer (to grow)

  • comendo
  • bebendo
  • crescendo

112

Write the gerund of the following -IR verbs:

  • abrir (to open)
  • dormir (to sleep)
  • pedir (to request)

  • abrindo
  • dormindo
  • pedindo

113

Write the gerund of the following verbs ending in -POR:

  • pôr (to put)
  • compor (to compose)
  • dispor (to dispose, to have)

  • pondo
  • compondo
  • dispondo

114

The Portuguese language has two forms of the infinitive. What are they called and what is the basic difference between them?

They are the impersonal infinitive and the personal infinitive. The personal infinitive is inflected for person and number, while the impersonal infinitive is invariable.

115

In which situations is the personal infinitive commonly used?

Usually, the personal infinitive is used: a) when the same sentence has clauses with different subjects; b) when there is an explicit subject preceding the infinitive; c) to refer to an undetermined subject in the third-person plural.

***Note that there is no set of boundaries regarding the use of the personal infinitive, which is rare or nonexistent in most other well-known languages. The best way to understand the many contexts in which it may be used is simply to be directly exposed to all of them in both written and spoken form.

116

Explain why, in the sentence below, we use the personal infinitive form of the verb ir (to go).

Eu acho que é melhor tu ires embora. I think it is better for you to leave.

There are two different subjects in the sentence. The first subject is eu (first-person singular), while the second subject is tu (second-person singular).

117

Explain why, in the sentence below, we use the personal infinitive form of the verb ver (to see).

Acendemos a luz para nós vermos melhor. We turned on the lights for us to see better.

In this case, the subject, nós (second-person plural), was clearly expressed in the second clause, even though it was only implicit in the main clause.

Since the subject is always the same, had it remained implicit in the second clause, the impersonal infinitive would have been just as appropriate: Acendemos a luz para ver melhor. We turned on the lights to see better.

So in these cases, if there is an expressed subject, the personal infinitive is not just optional, it is mandatory for a grammatically correct sentence.

118

Explain why, in the sentence below, we use the personal infinitive form of the verb dizer (to say).

As meninas quiseram ficar lindas para não dizerem que elas não tinham estilo. The girls wanted to look gorgeous for others not to say they had no style.

In this sentence, there is a reference to an undetermined third person, which makes the use of the personal infinitive valid.

One can argue that this ends up being the same situation as that from an earlier example, which had two different subjects. In this case, they just happen to be identical in person and number.

119

Which verbs have the exact same conjugations for the personal infinitive and the future subjunctive? What is the easiest way to identify which tense is being used in a sentence?

Regular verbs have identical conjugations in both the personal infinitive and the future subjunctive.

To identify which is being used in a sentence, it is best to replace the verb with an irregular one and see which form of that verb fits best.

120

In the sentence below, in which tense is the verb in bold -- the personal infinitive or the future subjunctive? If you are in doubt, try replacing the verb with an irregular one.

Vou sentir medo quando falar com ele. I'll be afraid once I talk to him.

Replacing the verb falar with the irregular verb fazer (to do), you get:

Personal infinitive?: Vou sentir medo quando fazer com ele. Incorrect. Quando fazer is grammatically incorrect in this context.

Future subjunctive?: Vou sentir medo quando fizer com ele. Correct. Quando fizer is grammatically correct.

Therefore, in the sentence, the verb falar was in the future subjunctive.

121

In the sentence below, in which tense is the verb in bold -- the personal infinitive or the future subjunctive? If you are in doubt, try replacing the verb with an irregular one.

Vou sentir medo de falar com ele. I'll be afraid of talking to him.

Replacing the verb falar with the irregular verb fazer (to do), you get:

Future subjunctive?: Vou sentir medo de fizer com ele. Incorrect. De fizer is grammatically incorrect.

Personal infinitive?: Vou sentir medo de fazer com ele. Correct. De fazer is grammatically correct.

Therefore, in the sentence, the verb falar was in the personal infinitive.

122

How do you form the continuous forms of simple tenses?

There are two options. One is to use the gerund of the verb, preceded by an auxiliary verb (usually estar) in one of the simple tenses.

Another option is to follow the auxiliary verb with the preposition a + the infinitive form of the verb.

The first option is dominant in Brazilian Portuguese, while European Portuguese favors the second option, except in some (mostly southern) regions of Portugal.

Example of the present continuous: Estou comendo sopa = Estou a comer sopa = I am eating soup

123

Are there any peculiarities regarding the construction of the past and future continuous?

In the past continuous, the auxiliary verb is commonly used in the imperfect tense instead of in the simple past. The usage of the simple past for the auxiliary verb usually only applies when the speaker is referring to a distant past.

Also, in the future continuous, instead of using only one auxiliary verb (estar) in the future, there is also the option of adding a second auxiliary verb (the verb ir) to express the time of the action, leaving the auxiliary verb estar in its infinitive form.

Example of the future continuous: Estarei fazendo exercício = Vou estar fazendo exercício = I will be exercising

124

What is the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs?

Transitive verbs are action verbs that have a direct object, whereas intransitive verbs don't have objects.

Example: "I eat cake" (transitive) vs. "I slept" (intransitive)

A simple way of distinguishing between them is to see if the questions "What?" or "Who?" (referring to direct objects) or "To whom?" (referring to indirect objects) can be applied to the verb in question. In the sentence "I eat cake," "cake" is the answer to the question "Eat what?" But one cannot ask "Slept what?" or "Slept who?" These questions are only applicable to transitive verbs and never to intransitive verbs.

125

What are reflexive verbs?

They are verbs whose subject acts on itself or performs an action that is reciprocal.

For example, the reflexive form of the verb vestir, "to dress," is vestir-se. This literally translates to "to dress oneself."

In the phrase Eles se abraçaram, "They hugged each other," se abraçaram is a reflexive form of the verb abraçar, "to hug," in the third-person plural.

126

How is the infinitive tense of a reflexive verb formed?

Add the pronoun se to the infinitive form of the verb, using a hyphen to connect the two.

Examples: levantar-se (to get oneself up), pentear-se (to comb oneself), olhar-se (to look at oneself)

127

How do you conjugate reflexive verbs?

They are conjugated normally, only you must remember to add the appropriate reflexive pronoun to the conjugation. The six reflexive pronouns are, in order:

  • me
  • te
  • se
  • nos
  • vos
  • se

128

In Brazilian Portuguese, where are reflexive pronouns usually placed, in relation to the verb?

In Brazilian Portuguese, it is most common for reflexive pronouns to precede the verb.

Examples: Eu me vesti sem ajuda. I dressed myself without help.

Ela se chateou com ele. She got herself mad at him.

In Portugal, reflexive pronouns may often come after the verb and are connected to it by a hyphen.

The previous examples would then become: Eu vesti-me sem ajuda. Ela chateou-se com ele.

In terms of common speech/writing, European Portuguese is more flexible when it comes to the placement of reflexive pronouns.

129

Conjugate the verb lavar (to wash) in the reflexive form of the present indicative.

Lavar-se:

  • eu me lavo
  • tu te lavas
  • ele/ela/você se lava
  • nós nos lavamos
  • vós voslavais
  • eles/elas/vocês se lavam

130

The verb ser, as an auxiliary verb, is used to form the passive voice. How does the passive voice work?

The object of the active form becomes the subject of the passive one. In Portuguese, the passive voice is created by the verb ser plus the past participle of the main verb. Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.

Example: Eu pago a renda. I pay the rent. [active form]

A renda é paga por mim. The rent is paid by me. [passive form]

131

Can all verbs be conjugated in the passive form?

No. Only transitive verbs have the passive voice.

132

Conjugate the verb amar (to love) in the passive form of the present indicative.

  • eu sou amado/a
  • tu és amado/a
  • ele/ela/você é amado/a
  • nós somos amados/as
  • vós sois amados/as
  • eles/elas/vocês são amados/as

Note how the past participle should vary in gender and number according to the subject. This is not seen in the conjugations of tenses in the active form.

133

Conjugate the verb ensinar (to teach) in the passive form of the present perfect subjunctive.

  • eu tenha sido ensinado/a
  • tu tenhas sido ensinado/a
  • ele/ela/você tenha sido ensinado/a
  • nós tenhamos sido ensinados/as
  • vós tenhais sido ensinados/as
  • eles/elas/vocês tenham sido ensinados/as

Note that the auxiliary verb of the passive voice, ser, is always next to the main verb, even in the presence of other auxiliary verbs, as is the case here.

134

What are impersonal verbs?

Impersonal verbs are verbs with no determinate subject. They can only be conjugated in the third person in all moods except for the imperative, which does not exist for impersonal verbs.

Example: the verb chover (to rain) can only be conjugated in the third person.

135

What are some common impersonal verbs used to talk about weather?

Some verbs used to talk about weather:

  • chover - to rain
  • nevar - to snow
  • trovejar - to thunder

136

Many impersonal verbs are used to tell facts and express opinions, feelings, and needs. List some of them.

  • haver - there to be/to happen/to occur
  • acontecer - to happen/to occur
  • ocorrer - to happen/to occur
  • suceder - to happen/to occur
  • bastar - to be enough
  • precisar - to need/to be necessary
  • parecer - to seem/to appear

137

Translate to Portuguese: "There was an accident."

Houve um acidente.

138

Translate to Portuguese: "It happens that you are wrong."

Acontece que você está errado.

The verbs ocorrer or suceder would also work here.

139

Translate to Portuguese: "It seems like she's happy."

Parece que ela está feliz.

Note that the verb ser could also be used instead of estar. It is the context that determines which one is the most appropriate. In this case, not enough information is given, so one could have translated with either verb.

140

What are object pronouns and which types exist in Portuguese?

Object pronouns are personal pronouns that can be used as objects of a sentence in the place of the noun(s) that previously served that function. They are helpful to avoid the constant repetition of nouns in a group of sentences or clauses.

Two types of object pronouns exist in Portuguese: the direct and indirect object pronouns, which replace direct and indirect objects, respectively.

141

List the Portuguese direct object pronouns.

  • 1st person singular: me
  • 2nd person singular: te (informal), o/a (formal), lo/la
  • 3rd person singular: o/a, lo/la, no/na
  • 1st person plural: nos
  • 2nd person plural: os/as, los/las, nos/nas
  • 3rd person plural: os/as, los/las, nos/nas

142

When should you use the direct object pronouns lo/la(s) instead of o/a(s)?

The forms lo, la, los, and las are used instead of o, a, os, and as whenever they come right after the infinitive form of a verb, or after a verb form ending in -S.

If after an infinitive, the final -R is dropped and an acute accent is added to the last vowel when the verb is of the -AR group, while a circumflex accent is added when the verb is of the -ER group (which traditionally includes verbs ending in -POR). No accent is added when the verb is of the -IR group.

The direct object pronoun connects to the verb with a hyphen. If the direct object pronoun comes after a verb form ending in -S, no accents should be added to the verb, although the last -S is also dropped and a hyphen is used to connect the object pronoun to the verb.

143

Rewrite the sentence below using a direct object pronoun to replace the original object.

Você vai comer o bolo? Are you going to eat the cake?

comer + o

Você vai comê-lo? Are you going to eat it?

144

Rewrite the sentence below using a direct object pronoun to replace the original object.

Levas os livros na mochila? Do you carry the books in the backpack?

levas + os

Tu leva-los na mochila? Do you carry them in the backpack?

145

When should you use the direct object pronouns no/na(s) instead of o/a(s)?

The forms no, na, nos, and nas are used instead of o, a, os, and as whenever they come right after a verb form that ends in a nasal consonant. M and N are the nasal consonants; Portuguese verbs can only end in the former. In those cases, the verb form is left unchanged. All you have to do is connect the direct object pronoun to it with a hyphen.

146

Rewrite the sentence below using a direct object pronoun to replace the original object.

Eles compraram as roupas. They bought the clothes.

compraram + as

Eles compraram-nas. They bought them.

147

In previous examples, the direct object pronouns were always placed after the verb. Is this the only possible placement for them? And what is the preferred placement in Brazilian Portuguese?

Direct object pronouns can also be placed before the verb and, in certain cases, even in the middle of it (creating more complicated constructions that are not commonly used).

Brazilians prefer to place direct object pronouns before the verb, while the Portuguese tend to put them after the verb. This is not a rule, but a strong preference. The main exception is when Brazilians use subject pronouns as direct object pronouns, in which case the subject pronouns will appear after the verb. You will learn more about this exception soon.

148

What are the structural differences between placing direct object pronouns before and after the verb?

As seen before, direct object pronouns that come after the verb always have to connect to it with a hyphen, and the forms lo/la(s) and no/na(s) have to be used instead of o/a(s) whenever necessary.

When direct object pronouns come before the verb, they are independent in the sentence and don't connect to the verb. Also, the forms lo/la(s) and no/na(s) are never applicable when the pronoun precedes the verb -- only the forms o/a(s).

149

In informal Brazilian Portuguese, the standard direct object pronouns are rarely used. What do Brazilians use as direct object pronouns instead?

Brazilian people commonly use subject pronouns as direct object pronouns, instead of the true direct object pronouns. The only exceptions to this are the 1st and 2nd person singular, where me and te are still used instead of eu and tu.

150

List the Portuguese indirect object pronouns.

  • 1st person singular: me, para mim
  • 2nd person singular: te (informal), lhe (formal), para ti, para você
  • 3rd person singular: lhe/lha, para ele/para ela (informal), para o senhor/para a senhora (formal)
  • 1st person plural: nos, para nós
  • 2nd person plural: lhes, para vocês
  • 3rd person plural: lhes, para eles/para elas (informal), para os senhores/para as senhoras (formal)

Note: The construction "para ..." is a grammatically correct alternative form for all indirect object pronouns.

151

In Brazilian Portuguese, what is the usual placement for indirect object pronouns?

Just like direct object pronouns, Brazilian Portuguese favors the placement of indirect object pronouns before the verb. However, the alternative construction "para ..." always comes after the verb.

152

Rewrite the sentence below twice, substituting the original indirect object for a true indirect object pronoun in one case and for the alternative construction "para ..." in the other.

Mônica deu o livro para Pedro. Mônica gave the book to Pedro.

With a true indirect object pronoun:

Mônica lhe deu o livro. Mônica gave him the book.

With the construction "para...":

Mônica deu o livro para ele. Mônica gave the book to him.

153

In informal Brazilian Portuguese, what is most commonly used -- the standard indirect object pronouns or the alternative construction "para ..."?

Brazilian people favor the construction "para ..." instead of the simple indirect object pronouns. Both are grammatically correct, though, instead of the informal versions of direct object pronouns, which, however common, are technically incorrect.

154

Rewrite the sentence below, substituting the original direct and indirect objects with their respective informal versions of object pronouns.

Pedro comprou o carro para Mônica. Pedro bought the car for Mônica.

With informally substituted objects:

Pedro comprou ele para ela. Pedro bought it for her.

155

Rewrite the below sentence by replacing the original direct and indirect objects with their respective formal object pronouns.

Pedro comprou o carro para Mônica. Pedro bought the car for Mônica.

With properly substituted objects:

Pedro o comprou para ela. Pedro bought it for her.