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Flashcards in Post-midterm Deck (106):
1

theory

broad explanation that provides a structure for organizing and interpreting a multitude of observable phenomena and their relationships to one another (Hagestad & Dannefer, 2001)

2

Key words in publications/research on aging

healthy or successful aging
frailty

more recently, healthy or successful aging has been a stronger hit than frailty when they used to be on par/level with each other

3

elements of successful aging

- minimization of risk of disease and disability (physical function)
- maintenance of physical and cognitive function
- continuous engagement with life

4

key domains in aging

physiological (highest emphasis) - physical functioning, cognitive function, illness/disease
descending emphasis:
well being
engagement
personal resources
extrinsic factors

5

Disengagement theory

- first formal social theory of aging
- societal and individual perspectives
- normalizes withdrawing in aging
- disengagement benefits both society and individual (when the person dies)

6

critiques/countering disengagement theory

greater activity/engagement and greater life satisfaction and well-being

disengagement not inevitable
disengagement has risk factors

7

activity theory

successful aging = active aging
- maintain roles and activities of middle age, no fundamental change in psychological and social NEEDS from middle to older adulthood
- substitute lost roles with new roles

8

continuity theory

came out in the late 80s
- adaptive strategy:
personality
activities
relationships

9

role theory

- we play a variety of social roles
- roles define use
- chronological age:
eligibility
appropriateness
social expectations

10

role theory -- role transformations

- role adoption
- role loss
- role discontinuity
- role exit

11

symbolic interaction perspective

interactions between individuals and their environment

12

social exchange theory

if an older person perceives that their contributions are no longer valued by others they may begin to withdraw from participating in social activities

consider: value of nonmaterial resources (e.g. love wisdom time)
- deferred exchange

13

social phenomenology of Aging

aging influence by social definitions and social structures
create socail reality for themselves and others
arise out of negotion

14

modernization theory

premise: decline in status of the aged
- health technology
- economic technology

15

Caveats modernization theory

- never existed (there was nothing to begin with to decline)
- rare
- urbanization and industrialization
- dependent on need, ability, and policy

16

development theory of aging (stages)

- stages of physical and mental development
infant toddler --> older adult

17

Erik Erikson - stages of psychosocial development

development of individual through various levels, each stage being necessary for adaptation and for psychological adjustment

ego over the life course
- stages
- dilemma
- successful
- unsuccessful
-- old age begins at 60 and it's all just grouped 60+ from there

18

generativity

7th stage of psychosocial development in Erikson's model; caring for and mentoring younger generations, looking toward the future, and not stagnating in the past

19

Erikson's Stage theory problems

broad generalizations
cross-cultural valididty
life course theory

20

social support networks composition (who)

family
friends
co-workers, schoolmates
acquaintances
neighbors
social groups/orgs

21

characteristics of social networks

# of ties
diversity of ties
frequency of interaction

22

social integration

- the degree of emotional closeness
- availability of support when needed
- perception of oneself as an engaged person

23

emotional support

expression of empathy, caring, concern, love

24

instrumental support

provision of direct assistance or care (transportation, shopping, cooking, cleaning, gardening, house repair)

25

personal care (under instrumental support)

providing care with basic activities such as bathing, dressing, feeding

26

informational and organization support

support in decision making, care coordination and financial management

27

downside of social support

- feelings of helplessness
- perceptions of low mastery, autonomy, self-efficacy and control
- perceived overprotection
- feeling infantilized
- may lead to neg. impact on mental and physical well-being

28

downside of social support

- feelings of helplessness
- perceptions of low mastery, autonomy, self-efficacy and control
- perceived overprotection
- feeling infantilized
- may lead to neg. impact on mental and physical well-being

women have larger networks and often feel more of the neg effects than men

29

health promotion

health education and environmental changes are important to enhance people's ability to improve their well-being, not just manage their diseases

30

exercise as central to health promotion

the benefits of regular aerobic weight-bearing exercise such as brisk walking and strength training are numerous, even for people with chronic illness

31

nutrition

a healthy diet has multiple benefits, eg. a moderate reduction in saturated and trans-fats can reduce cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease.

32

primary prevention (health prevention)

- prevention from even starting something
- not smoking - prevents chances of cancer

33

secondary prevention

stopping a disease before it affects your life (mammograms detect breast cancer early enough to treat it for high chances of survival)

34

tertiary prevention

preventing something that has already become clinical and affected someone's life from recurring

35

sociometric network

identify attributes of the network (closed social system) by drawing and identifying relationships

36

mammograms in samoan women in LA

women with the highest level of connection had the highest levels of implementation of mammograms (more than once)

- healthcare providers important for first mammogram
- peer network most important for repeated use of mammography over time

37

classic aging pattern (intelligence tests)

lower functioning on performance tests of skills such as perceptual speed, stable scores on verbal scales

38

learning

new info from sensory etc memory becomes encoded "secondary memory"..ok

39

creaivity

ability to bring something new and valued into existence, such as applying unique solutions and coming up with original ideas or products

40

positive aging qualities

long term "healing relationships"
supportive partner
replacing social networks
active coping
sense of purpose
generativity

41

critical perspectives on "successful aging"

- exception to peers -- too competitive
- anti-aging (successful if able to do things that most people do when they're younger)
- class-based: puts a standard on aging that not all older adults will be able to achieve (due to opportunity)
- does not separate aging from health
- empirical support for alternative models
- emphasis on Western values

42

productive activity

any activity (paid or unpaid) that produces good or services, or develops the capacity to produce them, for the benefit of others/society

43

xerostomia

lack of saliva (causes problems eating)

44

reactions to loss

- denial, numbness, shock
- bargaining
- depression
- anger
- acceptance

45

denial (benefits)

- protects the individual from experiencing the intensity of the loss *defense mechanism*

46

underpaid caregivers: direct care workers

minimal education, living in poverty "paraprofessional"
- provide hands on care in both private home and institutional settings

47

age stratification theory

- addresses that each person goes through different experiences (in addition to cohort effect)

48

life course perspective

attempts to bridge structural or societal level and individual psychological level factors that affect human development (cohort + individual factors)

49

political economy

socioeconomic + political constraints such as power and control of resources NOT individual factors, shape the experience of aging and age inequities in society
--result in cumulative disadvantages in old age

50

social constructionism

aging is defined as a problem more by culture and society than by biology and bodily changes
- realities of age and age-related concepts are socially constructed through our interpersonal interactions

51

Eldercare Workforce Alliance (EWA)

national coalition of professional organizations whose goal is to address the workforce needs in the field of aging and influence federal legislation to expand the geriatric workforce

52

fluid intelligence

skills that are biologically determined; independent of experience or learning; require flexibility in thinking

53

intelligence

the theoretical limit of an individual's performance

54

primary mental abilities (PMA)s

the basic set of intellectual skills, including mathematical reasoning, word fluency, verbal meaning, inductive reasoning, and spatial orientation

55

recall

the process of searching through secondary memory in response to a specific external cue

56

self-concept

cognitive representation of the self; emerges from interactions with social environment, social roles, and accomplishments

57

classic aging pattern

older people
lower functioning on performance tests of skills such as perceptual speed (fluid intelligence) but stable scores on verbal (crystallized intelligence)

58

older adults marital status

more men married
more women widowed

59

Administration on Aging (AoA)

primary funder of community based services for older adults; oversee,s supports, and advocates for services through the Aging Network; now part of the ACL

60

blended fam

membership comprise blood and nonblood relationships through divorce or remarriage

61

fictive kin

families of choice, not relatives in the formal sense, whose members provide the kind of love and support that caring family members do for each other

62

foster grandparents program

volunteer program pairing elders with children with special needs

63

gatekeepers

people in formal and informal roles who regularly interact with older adults and can watch for signs indicating a need or assistance
ex: postal carriers, beauticians or friends and neighbors

64

gerontological society of america (GSA)

association of researchers, educators, and practitioners interested in gerontology and geriatrics

65

multigenerational fam

3+ more gens alive at same time

66

natural helpers

people who assist others because of their concern, interest, and innate understanding

67

Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP)

federally sponsored program that places older adult volunteers in a wide range of service settings

68

social networks of choice

mutually helpful social relationships consisting of friends, relatives, and members from the community at large

69

SAGE Services & Advocacy for Gay, lesbian, Bisexual & Transgender Elders

oldest and most influential national organization, providing services, advocating at a policy level, and training services providers

70

hypotension

dizziness and faintness from exertion after a period of inactivity, typically due to low blood pressure

71

health promotion model

- individuals largely responsible for and in control of their own health through lifestyle changes, combined with health education and related environmental changes conducive to health

72

National Council on the Aging (NCOA)

nation org of over 2,000 social welfare agencies concerned with aging that provides technical consultation and is involved in federal legislative activities

73

hypokinesia

degeneration and functional loss of muscle and bone due to physical inactivity

74

working memory

temporary stage of holding, processing, and organizing info--not a specific storage area in the brain.....

75

perceptual speed

time required to recognize and respond to a stimulus deteriorates with aging

76

general dslowing hypothesis

aging causes a slowing of info processing in the nervous system, resulting in slower performance on complex tasks, although the extent of slowing varies with the task

77

executive function

cognitives skills required to organize one's learning function

78

instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)

summary of an individual's ability to perform more complex activities such as household and financial management, making a phone call, grocery shopping, meal preparation and taking medications

79

tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs)

difficulty retrieving names from secondary memory but often spontaneously recalled later

80

selective attention

being able to focus on information relevant to a task while ignoring irrelevant info

81

disuse theory

not using the info results in its loss

82

interference theory

explains age-related problems with retrieval-- poor retrieval may be due to combo of distraction during the learning stage and interference by new info with the material stored over many years being searched for in the retrieval stage

83

cognitive retraining

teaching people how to use various techniques to keep their minds active and maintain good memory skills

84

mediators (visual and verbal)

- visual and verbal links between info to be memorized and info that is already in secondary memory
- assist in recall
- mnemonics

85

creativity

ability to bring something new and valued into existence, such as applying unique solutions and coming up with original ideas or products

86

ego integrity vs despair

8th and last stage of psychosocial development in Erikson's model; aging individual achieves wisdom and perspective--accepting inevitability of death, or despairs because he or she views one's life as lacking meaning

87

stage theories of personaltiy

development of an individual through various levels, each stage being necessary for adaptation and for psychological adjustment

88

ego integrity vs. despair

aging individual achieves wisdom and perspective, or despairs bc s/he views one's life as lackign meaning

89

life review

process of sharing one's memories and experiences with others, whether orally or in writing (can help older adults attain ego integrity)

90

positivity effect

elders more likely to remember positive emotional content than negative

91

socio-emotional selectivity theory

explains paradox that elders' emotional well-being is often better than younger adults, despite losses faced
-- when faced with death more likely to pursue emotional satisfaction rather than acquiring info

92

self-efficacy

feeling competent to deal with new situations

93

Cognitive-behavioral interventions

use active, time-limited approaches to change negative thoughts and behaviors, such as self-monitoring and increased participation in pleasant events

94

problem-solving therapy (part of CBT)

goal-setting
effective coping techniques
motivational interviewing

95

anxiety disorder

functional psychological disorder often triggered by external stress and accompanied by increased heart rate, fatigue, restlessness and sleep disorders

96

paranoia

psych disorder characterized by irrational suspiciousness of other people

97

schizophrenia <1% elders

psych disorder characterized by thought disorders and hallucinations, psychotic behavior, and loss of emotional expression

98

Third Age

stage after middle age before final stage and is conceptualized as a time of continued involvement and growth in areas of life beyond employment and family

99

palliative care

focused on alleviating/relieving pain by addressing the patient's emotional, social, and spiritual needs, not on lifesaving measures

100

hospice

program of care for dying persons that gives emphasis to the personal dignity of the dying person, reducing pain and sources of anxiety and provides family support when needed

101

socioemotional selectivity theory

increase focus on emotionally-satisfying and meaningful relationships in late life

102

problems w instrumental support in older adulthood

-feelings of helplessness
- perceptions of low mastery, autonomy, self-efficacy and control
- perceived overprotection
- feeling infantilized

- may lead to neg impact on mental and physical well-being

103

mental disorders among older persons

depression
anxiety
dementia

104

Rowe & Kahn model of "successful" aging

- free of disease and disability
- good cog/phys functioning
- engaged with life/involvement in soc

105

critical perspectives on productive activity for aging

classbased
- separates aging from health
- empirical support for alternative models
- emphasis on western values

106

Erikson's stages of psychosocial developmetn 7 + 8

7 - middle adulthood (30-60) - generativity vs stagnation

8 - old age (60+) - integrity/wsidom vs despair