Flashcards in Post-War America Deck (27):
Segregation laws/social prejudice.
-'Jim Crow Laws'
-Threat of violence if African Americans tried to vote (police often took part.)
-White teachers earned 30% more.
-Some whites believed in equality but afraid to lose privileged way of life.
What was the American Dream?
-Prosperity-America produced 1/2 world's goods.
What was McCarthyism?
-HUAC investigated possible communists/Hollywood stars questioned.
-Senator McCarthy claimed to have list of communists working in govt.
-Set up own committee to investigate/hearings shown on live TV. No proof.
-People called him a bully when he started accusing people in army and he gave USA bad reputation.
🔵Teenagers-more spending money, had own style and culture. James Dean 'Rebel Without a Cause.'
🔵Rock and Roll-Elvis Presley, teenage discontent.
🔵Television-Sponsors and advertisements.
Sense of national American culture developed.
What were the civil rights groups?
-SCLC, formed by MLK, non-violent.
-SNCC, African Americans and white American students, non-violent.
What was The March on Washington?
All African Americans to achieve right to vote.
Over 250,000 people marched to Washington.
Pressure Kennedy into introducing a civil rights bill.
'I have a dream.'
Impact on public opinions.
What were the Greensboro Sit-ins?
Woolworths had lunch counter with chairs only for whites.
African American students sat in these seats and refused to leave.
Within a week 400 students were organising sit-ins. Spread to other cities.
By end of year lunch counters had been desegregated in 126 cities.
Sit-ins in restaurants, libraries, churches.
What was Brown v Board of Education?
Linda Brown had to cross rail track on journey to school rather than attend all-whites school nearby.
NAACP brought court case against Topeka board of education and won in 1954.
Justice Warren stated segregated schools could not be equal and ordered Southern states to set up integrated schools.
Little Rock Arkansas?
3 years after BvB Arkansas had not integrated schools.
Supreme Court ordered Governor of Arkansas (Faubus) to let 9 African Americans attend white school but he ordered state troops to avoid them attending because he 'could not guarantee their safety.' Backed down when Eisenhower sent troops for 6 weeks to protect students. 1 graduated.
What were freedom rides?
19601. CORE, SNCC.
Many states still hadn't desegregated buses.
Freedom riders rode buses in Birmingham to highlight this.
Faced violent reaction, 200 arrested.
JFK stepped in to stop violence and arrests.
Civil rights campaigners had shown they were no longer prepared to be intimidated.
KING's priority was to get African Americans voting so organised voting rights march through Selma. Had a racist sheriff, Jim Clark.
Authorities banned march 600 did it anyway and were brutally attacked.
TV pictures of violence horrified America.
King led a token March which turned back after a short distance.
Montgomery Bus Boycott?
1955-1965. MIA (MLK.)
Rosa Parks refused to give up bus seat for white person and was arrested.
MIA was formed to boycott buses. On first day buses were empty and over 10,000 listened to MLK speech. Bus company lost 65% income.
1956 Supreme Court ruled bus segregation illegal.
Failures of Montgomery bus boycott?
King arrested twice.
Churches and homes set on fire.
Integrated buses shot at by snipers.
Carpool declared illegal by local judges.
Assassination of Martin Luther King.
Caused insecurity and frustration among those who watched development.
Law might have changed, but had attitudes changed with it?
Malcolm X and the black power movement.
1960s. Nation of Islam Malcolm X.
Black nationalists-critical of MLK's methods-separate black state.
SNCC radical when Carmicheal elected chairman 1966, talked in terms of black power.
Black panthers had around 2,000 members, believed they should arm themselves and force white people to give them equality, killed 9 officers between 1967-1969.
1965-1967. North and West.
Most of police force was white and black working class did not feel they received the same protection as whites and distrusted police.
Most serious were in Watts area of Los Angeles 1965 and Detroit 1967.
Impact of black power movement.
-Alarmed moderate opinion/whites felt alienated from civil rights movement.
-Roy Wilkins opposed, thought it gave law enforcement excuse to crack down on all African American activists.
-Media coverage misinformed and based on ignorance, no attempt to understand.
-Carmicheal and King agreed on need to fight poverty and opposed Vietnam war.
Feminist movement-fight for equal pay.
Petitioned, threatened legal action, went on strike.
Equal Pay Act 1963 (some exceptions.)
Equal Rights Amendment Act 1972 (removed some exceptions.)
Agitation for more to be done to bring women's average pay above 70% of men's.
Roe v Wade.
Fundamental right for women.
Opposition to Equal Rights Amendment (feminism.)
Some women did not agree with abortion rights or measures that encouraged pre-marital sex.
Women who enjoyed comfortable lifestyles were happy with status in society.
Religious groups used bible to justify male domination.
Some only interested in equal pay.
What did the Supreme Court rule for contraception?
1972 legally available to unmarried couples.
Great Society-Johnson's reforms.
Economic Opportunity Act 1964. Training do to disadvantaged youth 16-21, volunteers work and teach in slum areas.
Medicare and Medicaid 1965. Medical insurance for over 65s and hospital care for poor.
The Development Act 1965. Money provided to replace inner city slums with homes.
Opposition to Johnson's reforms.
Criticised by republicans-brake on freedom.
Poor African Americans still in sub-standard housing.
LBJ did not stand for re-election, unpopular due to Vietnam War.
Social policies of Kennedy.
Reforms were approved by congress.
-Extension of unemployment benefit.
-More aid to poor cities to improve housing+transport.
-Increase in social security benefits.
-Aid to economically distressed areas.
-Expansion of rural electrification programmes helped rural farming.
First Civil Rights Act.
Illegal for local govt. to discriminate in areas such as housing and employment.
King + SCLC encouraged African Americans to register to vote.
In the 20 months that followed the Act 430,000 registered to vote.
Second Civil Rights Act.
Housing could not be sold or rented on the basis of race, religion, national origin or sex.