POSTURAL CONTROL, BALANCE AND MOBILITY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in POSTURAL CONTROL, BALANCE AND MOBILITY Deck (45):
1

What is posture?

Represents the overall position of the body and limbs relative to one another and their representation in space

Postures can be in static and dynamic conditions

2

Postural control

involves controlling body’s position in space for the dual purposes of stability and orientation

3

Center of pressure

vertical projection of the COM

4

center of mass

point that is at the center of the total body mass

5

Stability limits

boundaries of an area in space which the body can maintain its position without changing the base of support

6

base of support

the are underneath and between both feet

7

Which test can be used to measure stability limits?

functional reach test
MDRT

8

Increasing stability limits in older adults and individuals with neurological conditions results in a

decreased risk for falls

9

Is the effect greater in A/P or M/L direction?

A/P?

10

Postural Orientation

The way you position yourself in space - biomechanical alignment of the body + orientation of the body vs. environment

11

Postural Stability (balance)

The ability to:
stay still in a certain position
maintain the projected centre of mass within stability limits (without changing the base of support)

12

*** Orientation & Stability demands ______ with each task ***

change

13

Postural _______ depends on postural ________

stability on orientation

14

Neural system (perception) :

Integration of sensory information to assess the position and motion of the body in space

15

Musculoskeletal system (action):

Ability to generate forces for controlling body position systems

16

Conditions involving neurological (ex: CP, MS, stroke, etc.) and/or musculoskeletal (ex: arthritis, neuropathic pain, amputation fibromyalgia, etc. ) systems can lead to deficits in postural _______ or _________ (because of impairments to neuro + musculo systems)

orientation or stability

17

2 types of postural control

anticipatory and reactive

18

Anticipatory postural control

Advance planning of actions
Obstacles, different types of surfaces

ex: getting ready to climb stairs

19

Reactive postural control

Actions that cannot be planned in advance due to the unexpected nature of an event
Ex: Being bumped in a crowd
Clinical Implications: important for falls prevention

20

CNS preprograms force based on____________ of what the task requires

anticipation

21

When doing balance exercises in rehab, is it more important to train anticipatory or reactive postural control?

reactive???

22

Goal of postural movement strategies :

To restore the COM of the body to a position of stability following a loss of balance

23

These postural responses are activated in response which 3 inputs?

to proprioceptive, visual and vestibular inputs

24

3 motor strategies

ankle, hip or stepping

25

Ankle strategy

Restore COM to a position of stability through body movement centered primarily about the ankle joints

26

- To oppose forward sway: activation of...

PF

27

- To oppose backward sway: activation of _______________

DF

28

Ankle strategy is in reaction to?

small perturbations and firm surface

29

Which is the first strategy?

ankle

30

Hip strategy controls..

Controls motion of the COM by producing large and rapid motions at the hip joints

31

Hip strategy in reaction to?

In reaction to larger and faster perturbations and when support surface is smaller than the feet (beam)

32

Stepping strategy happens when

When ankle and hip strategies are insufficient to recover balance, a step or hop is used to bring the support base into alignment under the COM

33

Visual system

Position and motion of the head & body with respect to surrounding objects
Reference for verticality

34

Which system is very important for neurological conditions?

visual to compensante for decrease in somatosensory system

35

Somatosensory system

Provides CNS with position and motion information about the body with reference to supporting surfaces (horizontal)
ex: ankle joint in standing position
Relationship of body segments to one another

36

Vestibular system

Information about HEAD position and motion
(displacement and acceleration; gravity)

37

Injuries or disorders to these 3 systems can lead to _________ problems ex: ataxic CP, hemiparesis, aging, etc.

balance

38

Can a loss of any of these systems be compensated by the other 2 systems?

yes

39

to understand these systems go to p.319

p.319

40

When standing still, does our nervous system rely more heavily on vision or somatosensory info?

It appears that under normal conditions, the nervous system may weigh the importance of somato info for postural control more heavily than vision and vestibular inputs

41

It appears that under normal conditions, the nervous system may weigh the importance of ______________ info for postural control more heavily than vision and __________ inputs

somatosensory, vestibular

42

Neurological lesions : people rely predominantly on : _______ during the early part of their balance recovery process and then use more somatosensory inputs

vision

43

Based on the stickman graph, if you are aging and over 65 years old, which do you resemble most?

5 and 6

44

Reducing the availability of ___ senses appears to have a significant effect on postural steadiness in ________ adults

2, healthy older

45

To maintain standing balance, elderly people with vestibular loss need their… _______ or their ___________________

vision, somatosensory function