What are the different drug metabolizing enzymes and what do they metabolize?

2D6=codeine, debrisoquin, fluoxetine; 2C9=s-warfarin, phenytoin,hexobarbital,ibuprofen; 2C19=clopidogrel in, omeprazole, diazepam, propanolol; 3A4=steroids, Ca channel blockers, benzos, amiodarone, erythromycin, clopidogrel out; 1A2=tylenol,caffeine,theophylline, warfarin; 2A6=zidovudine, warfarin; 2E1=tylenol

What value shows the variability of the sample mean from the true population mean?

Standard Error of the Mean = (standard deviation)/sqrt(sample size). Its like the standard deviation for populations.

What value shows the variability of the individual observations?

Standard deviation

Researchers plan to estimate the mean LDL cholesterol by selecting a sample from the entire U.S. population. What will the precision of the estimate depend on?

Standard error of the mean. i.e. standard deviation in the population, sample size and variance in the population.

This sets limits which include the population mean for 95% of all samples.

Confidence interval

In a study, a p value of .00001 tells you that your results are very unlikely if:

There really is no difference between the two groups. Your results are very likely if there is truly a difference between the two groups.

Incorrectly concluding a difference exists when in fact there is no difference.

Type I error

Failing to conclude a difference exists when a difference in fact does exist.

Type II error

The probability of making a type I error.

Significance level (alpha)

The probability of not making a type II error.

Power = 1 - false negative rate

Numerical data that can only take on integer values.

Discrete/count

Numerical data that can take on any value.

Continuous

Non-numeric data with hierarchy of values

Ordinal

Non-numeric data with no level of order

Nominal

This graphical depiction shows the interquartile range

Boxplot

Odds

Probability of + test/Probability of - test

You want to minimize missing cases.

Sensitivity. Low false negative rate.

You want to minimize unnecessary grief.

Specificity. Low false positive rate.