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Flashcards in Power And Borders Deck (26):

What is a state

Area of land of an independent country with well defined boundaries within which there is a politically organised body of people under a single government


Characteristics of a state

Defined territory
Government recognised by other states
Capacity to engage in formal relations with other states
Permanent population


What is a nation

A large group of people with strong bonds of identity. Bonded by a shared descent, history, traditions, culture and language eg Kurds


Where are nations

A nation may be confined to one country, or its people may live in an area across adjoining countries, or scattered globally in a diaspora.


What is a nation state

A state that has sovereignty over a single nation. The boundaries of the state coincide with the geographical area inhabitated by the nation


What is sovereignty

Absolute authority which independent states exercise in the government of the land and people in their territories.


How is sovereignty sustained

Internal sovereignty- a state has exclusively authority within its bounded territory and no other state can intervene in its domestic politics.

External sovereignty- a state cannot simply proclaim sovereignty there has to be a mutual recognition among over sovereign states.


Where does sovereign authority exist

Spatial land area
Rocks, soils, minerals and space beneath the surface
Agreed areas of sea and sea bed resources
Agreed air space


What are norms

Norms are derived from moral principles, customs and behaviours which have developed over time. Embedded in international law to be upheld by state governments and citizens


Where are norms found

UN charter


What is intervention

Actions of international organisations in resolving conflicts of humanitarian crises arising from challenges to sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Eg economic intervention or military intervention


When is intervention necessary

State govt failing to protect its citizens from violation of human rights
Civil war is the result of corrupt governance
Conflict between ethnic groups
Religious fundamentalism or terrorism have serious effects.
TNCs have negative economic, social or environmental impacts on countries in which they invest


What is geopolitics

The global balance of political power and international relations.


Examples of intervention

Economic sanctions

Military intervention

Missions of regional organisations such as NATO

humanitarian assistance by civil society organisations


Why are there inequalities among countries

Political strength
Level of development


What does the Westphalian model describe

A state cannot violate the sovereignty or territory or another state since, in this respect, they are all equal


How can the Westphalian concepts be challenged

Contested territory
Factional or sectarian tensions
Transnational movement of terrorist and extremist activity
Contested maritime boundaries
Legacy of colonialism


Example of contested territory

Russia’s annexation of Crimea and support for separists in Ukraine

Uk and Argentinian claims over the Falkland Islands


Example sod separatism

Claims for secessions in by basque and Catalan national groups in Spain

Scottish nationalists in uk


Example of factional or sectarian tensions

In the Middle East and North Africa where political and ethnic conflict challenge sovereignty and territorial integrity


Example of transnational movement of terrors it of extremist activity

Across the turkey - Syria border where smuggling of foreign fighters, oil, weapons and other military supplies threatens territorial integrity and sovereign control of the two countries


Example of the legacy of colonialism

‘Scramble for africa’ - arbitrary political boundaries and European administration of territory causes ethnic partitioning


What are transnational corporations

Large corporate enterprises which operate in more than one country


How have tncs been criticised

Business decisions to invest or reinvest, affecting the lives of many people, have been taken outside the host country which has little or no involvement

Disrespect for human rights through exploitation, low wages, long hours, poor working conditions, child labour


Why are tncs important for developing countries

Are a driving force of global economic integration

Lidcs becoming reliant on them to integrate their economy into the global economy and to encourage development


What is the problem with tncs in lidcs

Their business decisions and how they treat their workers the state government has little control over so they cannot protect their citizens. They are so dependent on them to help their economy that these issues are able to take place