Flashcards in PP 1 Deck (55):
surrounds muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and binding some structures together
Closely packed, parallel collagenous bundles
Provide strength and support
hold tendons down and together
bone to bone
Muscle to bone
Thin fluid sacs
Type of fibrous joints and their function.
Sutures (synarthrosis, which is immobile)
Syndesmosis (amphiarthrosis, which is slightly movable)
Gomphosis (synarthrosis, which is immobile)
Type of cartilaginous joints and their function.
Synchondrosis (synarthrosis with hyaline cartilage, which is immobile))
Symphysis (amphiarthrosis with fibrocartilage, which is slightly movable))
Function of diarthrosis joints.
What are fibrous joints?
joints held tightly together by thin fibrous connective tissue
Where do you find fibrous joints?
-between flat bones of the skull
Fibrous joints type of growth?
Anterior (frontal) fontanel
2 parietal and the segments of the frontal bone
Posterior (occipital) fontanel
Between the 2 parietal and occipital
Anteriolateral (sphenoidal) fontanel
between: frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones
Posterolateral (mastoid) fontanel
parietal, occipital, and temporal bones
Bones are bound together by relatively strong fibers of connective tissue or ligaments
Where do you find syndesmosis?
Inferior tibiofibular articulation
Inferior radio-ulnar articulation
Peg and socket: tooth fits into alveolar process.
How are cartilaginous joints fastened together?
by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
Two types of cartilaginous joints?
How are Synchondrosis bones bound together?
What is a special feature?
Where is a permanent synchondrosis found?
-bands of hyaline cartilage
-these joints are temporary structures that disappear during the growth process.
-between the sternum and the first rib
-costal cartilage uniting ribs to sternum
If ribs 2-6 do NOT have synchondrosis, what kind of joint are they?
gliding synovial joints
Describe the structure of the symphysis and what are two examples?
-Articular surfaces are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage and interposed and securely attached is a pad of resilient fibrocartilage
-symphysis pubis, intervertebral disc
Describe a synovial membrane?
lines the inner surface of the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
Where do you find articular discs?
may be present between dissimilar surfaces such as:
Ulna and carpal bones
Clavicle and sternum
Describe synarthrodial joints.
-Fibrous– suture, gomphosis
---Synchondrosis – temporary boundary disappears and creates a synostosis (epiphyseal plate)
Describe amphiarthrodial joints.
Examples of amphiarthrodial joints.
What is the function of diarthrodial joint?
Freely movable and synovial
3 types of synovial joints.
Biaxial: movement in two planes
Gliding, condyloid, saddle
Triaxial: movement in three planes
Ball and socket
Uniaxial synovial joint.
-movement in one plane
-Hinge and pivot joints
Biaxial synovial joint.
-movement in two planes
-Gliding, condyloid, saddle
Triaxial synovial joint.
-movement in three planes
-Ball and socket
Types of Diarthrodial Joints
Hinge, Pivot, Gliding, Condyloid, Saddle, Ball and Socket
Describe Hinge joint
Flexion and extension (elbow)
Describe Pivot joint
Rotation around longitudinal axis (sup. radio-ulnar, atlanto-axial)
Describe Gliding joint
plane surfaces (carpal and tarsal articulations)
Describe Condyloid joint
ovoid head in elliptical cav.
-Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction - no rotation (wrist)
Describe Saddle joint
1st CMC, flex, ext, abd, add, opposition, circumduction
Describe Ball and Socket joint
Flex, ext, abd, add, horiz. add/abd, IR, ER and circumduction
movement of the bone around a stationary mechanical axis with the distal partner as reference
Spin and swing
Osteokinematics terms are:
abduction, rotation, flexion, etc.
what happens between joint surfaces during movement
Make osteokinematic movements possible
Arthrokinematics terms are:
spin, roll and glide (slide)
Two fundamental shapes of Arthrokinematics.
Sellar or saddle
Describe Arthrokinematics ovoid shape
Convex or concave
Describe Arthrokinematics sellar or saddle shape.
Convex in one plane and concave at approximately
right angles to the convex
Describe Arthrokinematics spin movement?
Which areas do you see this?
Rotation around a stationary mechanical axis similar to the spin in osteokinematics, like a top.
Concave-Convex Rule of Joint Movement
All synovial joints...
may be classified as either concave or convex. Cartilage alters the surfaces that appear to be flat. More will be on the center to make the convex surface and conversely more lines the perimeters in the concave.
Concave-Convex Rule of Joint Movement
...follows the direction of the bone movement.
When the concave surface is stationary and the convex surface is moving, the gliding movement in the joint occurs in the _____ direction to the roll, and consequently opposite to the direction of the bone.