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Flashcards in PP 1 Deck (55):
1

Fascia

surrounds muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and binding some structures together

2

Aponeurosis

Closely packed, parallel collagenous bundles
Provide strength and support

3

Retinaculum

hold tendons down and together

4

Ligaments

bone to bone

5

Tendons

Muscle to bone

6

Bursae

Thin fluid sacs

7

Type of fibrous joints and their function.

Sutures (synarthrosis, which is immobile)
Syndesmosis (amphiarthrosis, which is slightly movable)
Gomphosis (synarthrosis, which is immobile)

8

Type of cartilaginous joints and their function.

Synchondrosis (synarthrosis with hyaline cartilage, which is immobile))
Symphysis (amphiarthrosis with fibrocartilage, which is slightly movable))

9

Function of diarthrosis joints.

freely movable

10

What are fibrous joints?

joints held tightly together by thin fibrous connective tissue

11

Where do you find fibrous joints?

-between flat bones of the skull

12

Fibrous joints type of growth?

Intramembranous ossification

13

Anterior (frontal) fontanel
Where?
Closes when?

18-24 months
2 parietal and the segments of the frontal bone

14

Posterior (occipital) fontanel
Where?
Closes when?

2 months
Between the 2 parietal and occipital

15

Anteriolateral (sphenoidal) fontanel
Where?
Closes when?

3 months
between: frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones

16

Posterolateral (mastoid) fontanel
Where?
Closes when?

12 months
parietal, occipital, and temporal bones

17

Syndesmosis

Bones are bound together by relatively strong fibers of connective tissue or ligaments

18

Where do you find syndesmosis?

Inferior tibiofibular articulation
Inferior radio-ulnar articulation

19

Gomphosis

Peg and socket: tooth fits into alveolar process.

20

How are cartilaginous joints fastened together?

by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

21

Two types of cartilaginous joints?

Synchondrosis
Symphysis

22

How are Synchondrosis bones bound together?
What is a special feature?
Where is a permanent synchondrosis found?

-bands of hyaline cartilage
-these joints are temporary structures that disappear during the growth process.
-between the sternum and the first rib
-costal cartilage uniting ribs to sternum

23

If ribs 2-6 do NOT have synchondrosis, what kind of joint are they?

gliding synovial joints

24

Describe the structure of the symphysis and what are two examples?

-Articular surfaces are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage and interposed and securely attached is a pad of resilient fibrocartilage
-symphysis pubis, intervertebral disc

25

Describe a synovial membrane?

lines the inner surface of the capsule and secretes synovial fluid

26

Where do you find articular discs?

may be present between dissimilar surfaces such as:
Ulna and carpal bones
Clavicle and sternum
TMJ
Knee

27

Describe synarthrodial joints.

-Immovable joints
-Fibrous– suture, gomphosis
-Cartilaginous
---Synchondrosis – temporary boundary disappears and creates a synostosis (epiphyseal plate)

28

Describe amphiarthrodial joints.

-Slightly movable

29

Examples of amphiarthrodial joints.

-Fibrous– syndesmosis
-Cartilaginous- symphysis

30

What is the function of diarthrodial joint?

Freely movable and synovial

31

3 types of synovial joints.

Uniaxial
Biaxial: movement in two planes
Gliding, condyloid, saddle
Triaxial: movement in three planes
Ball and socket

32

Uniaxial synovial joint.

-movement in one plane
-Hinge and pivot joints

33

Biaxial synovial joint.

-movement in two planes
-Gliding, condyloid, saddle

34

Triaxial synovial joint.

-movement in three planes
-Ball and socket

35

Types of Diarthrodial Joints

Hinge, Pivot, Gliding, Condyloid, Saddle, Ball and Socket

36

Describe Hinge joint

Flexion and extension (elbow)

37

Describe Pivot joint

Rotation around longitudinal axis (sup. radio-ulnar, atlanto-axial)

38

Describe Gliding joint

plane surfaces (carpal and tarsal articulations)

39

Describe Condyloid joint

ovoid head in elliptical cav.
-Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction - no rotation (wrist)

40

Describe Saddle joint

1st CMC, flex, ext, abd, add, opposition, circumduction

41

Describe Ball and Socket joint

Flex, ext, abd, add, horiz. add/abd, IR, ER and circumduction

42

Describe Osteokinematics

movement of the bone around a stationary mechanical axis with the distal partner as reference

43

Osteokinematics movement

Spin and swing

44

Osteokinematics terms are:

abduction, rotation, flexion, etc.

45

Describe Arthrokinematics

what happens between joint surfaces during movement

46

Arthrokinematics movement

Make osteokinematic movements possible

47

Arthrokinematics terms are:

spin, roll and glide (slide)

48

Two fundamental shapes of Arthrokinematics.

Ovoid
Sellar or saddle

49

Describe Arthrokinematics ovoid shape

Convex or concave

50

Describe Arthrokinematics sellar or saddle shape.

Convex in one plane and concave at approximately
right angles to the convex

51

Describe Arthrokinematics spin movement?
Which areas do you see this?

Rotation around a stationary mechanical axis similar to the spin in osteokinematics, like a top.

Humerus/scapula
Femur/pelvis
Humerus/radius

52

Concave-Convex Rule of Joint Movement
All synovial joints...

may be classified as either concave or convex. Cartilage alters the surfaces that appear to be flat. More will be on the center to make the convex surface and conversely more lines the perimeters in the concave.

53

Concave-Convex Rule of Joint Movement
Roll always...

...follows the direction of the bone movement.

54

When the concave surface is stationary and the convex surface is moving, the gliding movement in the joint occurs in the _____ direction to the roll, and consequently opposite to the direction of the bone.

opposite

55

When the convex surface is stationary and the concave surface is moving, the gliding movement in the joint occurs in the _____ direction as the roll and the bone.

same