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Flashcards in PP 3 Deck (55):
1

Hip articulation

Coxal or iliofemoral (ball and socket)

2

Major bursae of the hip

  • Trochanteric

  • iliopsoas

  • Ischial

3

Q image thumb

A image thumb
4

Another name for Iliofemoral

Y ligament/Bigelow

5

What is the role of the iliofemoral?

  • Positioned to prevent excessive extension
  • Plays important role in maintaining upright posture

6

How does the Ischiofemoral repond to extension and what is its purpose?

Winds tightly on extension, helping to stabilize extension

7

Purpose of Pubofemoral

Prevents excessive abduction of femur, limits extension

8

Strongest ligament of the body

Iliofemoral

9

Q image thumb

19. Sacrospinous

20. Sacrotuburous

23. Ischiofemoral

27. Posterior

10

Sacrospinous function

together with the sacrotuberous ligament, it converts the greater sciatic notch into the greater sciatic foramen and the lesser sciatic notch into the lesser sciatic foramen, its main function is to prevent posterior rotation of the ilium with respect to the sacrum

11

Sacrotuberous function

Fascial connections that make it consistent with biceps femoris insertion, controls forward flexion of sacrum and restricts posterior rotation of ilium

12

pelvis: Posterior pelvis sacroiliac short ligament

sacrum to ilium, runs obliquely

13

pelvis: Posterior pelvis sacroiliac long ligament

PSIS to sacrum, restricts anterior ilial rotation

14

pelvis: Posterior sacroiliac interosseous ligament

intrarticular, toughest ligament in the body – it has been shown that, when forcibly opening the SI joint, the bone will fail before the ligament; it is important in maintaining the joint space during weightbearing

15

pelvis: Iliolumbar ligament

  • attaches the fifth transverse process to the iliac crest
  • Up until 3rd decade it is muscular
  • It stabilizes the connection between the low back and pelvis, and limits side-flexion of the trunk

16

Q image thumb

1. iliolumbar

6. Inguinal

7. sacrospinous

15. Iliofemoral

17. Obturator membrane

17

Pelvis

  1. Posterior articulations: 
  2. Anterior articulation: 
  3. Movement: 

  1. Posterior articulations: Sacroiliac
  2. Anterior articulation: Symphysis
  3. Movement: a little anterioposterior rotation

18

Pubic Symphysis

  1. The ends are covered with what?
  2. What connects the ends?

  1. hyaline cartilage
  2. fibrous cartilage (disc)

19

Sacroiliac joint articular cartilage on the ilium is ____ while the cartilage covering the sacrum is _____.

  • fibrocartilage
  • hyaline (thicker)

20

Sacroiliac joint: Joint is part ____ and part ____.

  • synovial
  • fibrous (syndesmosis)

21

Sacroiliac joint: Movement of sacrum on the ilium is usually referred to as ___ and ___.

  • nutation (flexion)
  • counter-nutation (extension)

22

Sacroiliac joint: The total mean rotation is around ___ and the total translation is ____.

  • 4 degrees
  • ~ 3 mm

23

Movement of the ilium on the sacrum is referred to as____.

torsion

24

Knee: What type of joint is tibiofemoral?

Modified hinge

25

Knee: What type of joint is patellofemoral?

gliding

26

  1. Movements of the knee? When do additional movements occur?
  2. Normal ROM?
  3. What happens at 20 degrees?
  4. What happens at 90 degrees?

  1. Flexion, extension, and with a flexed knee: internal and external rotation

  2. 140˚

  3. At 20˚ of flexion, tibia starts to glide and rotation is possible

  4. Maximum rotation at 90˚ of flexion possible

27

Screw home mechanism

conjunct rotation of external rotation of the tibia during terminal extension (20 deg), necessitated by the larger medial femoral condyle

28

What kind of joint is the patello-femoral joint?

diarthrodial, synovial gliding joint

29

ACL Function

  • check anterior translation of tibia on femur
  • Resist/prevent hyperextension of the knee

30

Posterior Cruciate Ligament function

Main function is to prevent posterior displacement of the tibia on the femur

31

Which is stronger? ACL or PCL?

PCL

32

Transverse (genual) ligament:

connects anterior portion of menisci

33

Coronary ligaments:

part of the capsule which connects the periphery of each meniscus with the margin of the tibia

34

Menisci

  1. How is the blood supply?
  2. How does it get most of its nutrition? 
  3. What part is vascularized?
  4. Nerves?

  1. Poor
  2. Diffusion of synovial fluid
  3. periphery
  4. None

35

Which muscle is attached to the medial menisci?

The posterior horn is also attached to the semimembranous muscle via the posteriomedial capsule

36

Which muscle is attached to the lateral menisci?

The arcuate ligament and the popliteus muscle are both attached to the lateral meniscus

37

Which meniscus is shaped like a C and which an O?

  • C = Medial meniscus
  • O = Lateral meniscus 

38

Ankle articulations 

Talocrural or talotibial (hinge)

39

Most commonly injured ankle ligament

anterior talofibular (ATF) horizontal attachment from the talus to fibula

40

Superior Extensor Retinaculum (= tranverse crural):

binds down the foot extensors tendons by connecting to lateral distal fibula and medial distal tibia

41

Inferior Extensor Retinaculum (= Cruciate crural):

Y-shaped band that binds down the extensors;

42

Fibular Retinaculum:

band that binds down the peroneal (fibularis) tendons

 

43

Flexor Retinaculum:

medial aspect; retains and binds down the medial flexor muscle tendons

44

Intertarsals articulations

gliding

45

Tarsometatarsal articulations

gliding

46

Metatarsophalangeal articulations

condyloid - flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction

 

47

Interphalangeal articulations –

hinge - flexion and extension

48

Subtalar Joint (talocalcaneal) articulated between what?

between the talus and calcaneus

49

The plantar calcano-navicular (spring) ligament does what?

completes the bony socket of the talocalcaneal joint

50

Open Chain Pronation

triplanar movement which combines the movements of calcaneal eversion, talar horizontal abduction and dorsiflexion

 

51

Open Chain Supination

triplanar movement which combines the movements of calcaneal inversion, talar horizontal adduction and plantar flexion

52

Plantar fascia

superficial covering of bottom of foot; three portions attach from calcaneus to the phalanges (plantar aponeurosis)

53

Long plantar

deeper structure of the foot, attaches from calcaneus to 3rd, 4th, and 5th metatarsals

54

Short plantar

plantar calcanocuboid lig

 

55

Plantar calcanonavicular (Spring) ligament;

important in maintaining the medial longitudinal arch