# PPD & PDD - Overall Set Flashcards

1
Q

What is a skin load dominated building?

A

Buildings that have a lot of surface volume relative to their volume, thermal response is heavily influenced by the conditions outside

2
Q

What is an internal load dominated building?

A

Buildings with minimal surface area relative to volume (hospitals, skyscrapers, office buildings) or buildings that generate a lot of heat regardless of their volume (theater while in use, factory) aka have a lot of loads. Only need heating on worst winter nights, and around the perimeter. It’s more about shedding heat year round

3
Q

What is solar heat gain coefficient? What is the range & what is high vs low?

A

The fraction of net solar radiation through a window, both directly transmitted and absorbed and subsequently released inward
ranges from 0 - 1, higher means more of radiant heat goes through
Typ high is 0.7 - 0.9, low is 0.2 - 0.4

4
Q

What is insolation?

A

radiant energy per sf of the sun

5
Q

What is a British Thermal Unit (BTU)?

A

the heat needed to move 1 lb of water up 1 degree F

6
Q

What is psychrometry?

A

The relation between air temperature and humidity

When things evaporate, they make everything around them colder
Warm air can hold more moisture than cool air

7
Q

Does evaporation make the environment cooler or warmer?

A

cooler

8
Q

Which hold more moisture: warm or cool air?

A

warm

9
Q

What are degree days?

A

a unit used to determine the heating requirements of buildings, representing a fall of one degree below a specified average outdoor temperature (65°F) for one day

The higher the CDD, the longer or hotter the summer

The higher the HDD number the most severe the winter

10
Q

What does a high number of cool degree days mean?

A

the longer or hotter the summer

11
Q

What does a high number of cool degree days mean?

A
12
Q

What is conductivity (k)?

A

the rate at which heat passes

higher conductivity the faster heat moves across

13
Q

What is resistivity (r)?

A

the rate at which a material resists the transfer of heat

inverse of conductivity, 1/r

we generally want materials with high r

can be higher than 1

14
Q

What is conductance (C)?

A

homogeneous materials of any given thickness or for heterogeneous materials with known thermal properties

15
Q

What is resistance (R)?

A

homogeneous materials of any given thickness or for heterogeneous materials with known thermal properties

Inverse of conductance

R = r x d

16
Q

What is U value?

A

measure of the overall ability of a series of conductive and convective barriers to transfer heat
value between 1 & 0

the lower the value, the better the insulator

U = 1 / R1 + R2 + R3 + …

17
Q

What is conduction (including equation)?

A

heat exchange between two surfaces that are in contact

heat will move as a function of the temperature difference between the two surfaces (delta T), the area of the surfaces that are touching (A), and the U Value of the materials touching

Q=U x A x deltaT

18
Q

What is Outdoor Design Temperature?

A

worst case scenarios seasonal low, similar to 100 year flood

Allows to calculate what equipment you need to heat on the coldest day

19
Q

What is air change?

A

rate per hour at which an entire volume of air leaves and is replaced by outside air

0.9 air change means 90% in one hour

Need to convert air change per hour to cubic ft or air per minute

2 is good amount, anything below 0.3 you have to intentionally bring in outside air

20
Q

A

thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles

ex. surfaces around you have higher temps than the air - higher radiant heat

21
Q

What type of surfaces absorb, what type reflect?

A

dark and matte surfaces absorb more heat
light or reflective material reflect heat

22
Q

What is emittance?

A

a material’s ability to release heat through radiation

23
Q

What is low E glass?

A

microscopic layer of reflective coating inside glass
reflects heat back inside during winter, reflects heat out in the summer

24
Q

What is thermal mass?

A

the ability of a material to absorb, store and release heat

-Thermal lag - peaks are later and less sharp

-Moderating effect takes severity out of temp swings

25
Q

What are 3 types of passive solar gain?

A

Direct gain space - you are occupying the space that’s being heated up

Indirect gain space - solar energy heating up a gap between window and concrete wall (Trombe wall), thermal mass has a good view of the sun

Sun space - also indirect, sun heats up one space, which is not conditioned, conditioned space is inboard of that

26
Q

What is an evaporator loop?

A

Coolant that is evaporating or boiling is cold

Low pressure induces boiling

The side that is typ inside the house

27
Q

What is a condenser loop?

A

Coolant that is condensing is warm (heat is produced when changing from gas to liquid)

High pressure induces condensation

The side that is typ outside the house

28
Q

What is an economizer cycle / free cooling?

A

Cooling large buildings on cold nights with cool air using cold air outside the building (need to cool b/c heat generated inside the building offsets some of the heat losses from the envelope)

Can be air or water

29
Q

What is a heat pump?

A

Reverse flow of coolant so cold side is outside and hot side is inside
can be geothermal

30
Q

What is a grille?

A

air goes in

31
Q

What is a register?

A

air goes out

32
Q

What is a diffuser?

A

33
Q

What is a heat exchanger?

A

allows heat from the exhaust air to be shared with the intake air, without coming into direct contact

34
Q

What is a single zone HVAC?

A

use one outdoor condenser and one indoor head for a single area of the home

ideal for small homes

35
Q

What is a Terminal Reheat (with VAV)?

A

If a room needs to be heated, a valve opens to allow heating water to flow through the reheat coil which reheats the air that passes through the coil. The controls that monitor air flow and heating coil are normally linked to the room’s thermostat.

advantages are lots of control & space and equipment efficiencies, disadvantages are wasted energy

36
Q

What is a dual duct system?

A

not really used anymore, have one hot duct and one cold, mix together in a mixing box per room to achieve desired temp

37
Q

What is a split system?

A

compressor and condenser are outside, evaporator is inside, mostly for residential, must keep evaporator within 100’ of eachother

38
Q

What is a fan coil unit?

A

Fan in the space rather than remotely, generally minimal ductwork, but noisier, efficiency and maintenance, increase control, need less space (pipes rather than ducts), common for multifam

39
Q

What is an evaporative condenser?

A

water sprayed over top of the condenser, helps cool it quicker aka more efficient

40
Q

What are the issues with putting equipment on the roof?

A

Structural demands, noisier, ugly, inefficient because heat/cool loss as you run things across the roof

41
Q

What is a minisplit unit?

A

Fan coil unit in each zone, and each can be either a condenser or evaporator when needed

42
Q

What is a rooftop water to water system?

A

Chiller using water to cool the condenser (cooling tower) bring cool to building through chilled pipes

Can have the chiller be remote (up to ½ mi away) and feed multiple bldgs

Can have chiller in the basement and cooling tower on roof

Could be geothermal water to water - condenser heat goes through pipes in ground to cool/heat depending on season

43
Q

What is a Rooftop Water to Air System?

A

Condenser side has water cooled by water tower, evaporator has fan blowing air over coils

44
Q

What are the different materials of pipes?

A

Copper - more expensive, more friction
Plastic - less expensive, less friction (ABS, PE, PVC, PVDC - can be used with hot water)
rated by thickness (k thicker, l medium, m thinner)
DWV - used for drains and vents

45
Q

What are the different types of valves?

A

Gate - used for maintenance, can open it completely or close it
Globe - used for faucets, repeated use
Check - used for backflow prevention, near where water enters the bldg

46
Q

What is the equation for pressure? In the context of water in pipes.

A

Pressure (P, psi) = 0.433 (constant) x Height (h, ft)

47
Q

What are the temperature requirements for hot water?

A

140 deg for kitchen and laundry
110 deg for shower
105 for handwashing

48
Q

What are the different types of vents (plumbing)?

A

Traps require vents, some can share, some need their own
Soil stack - black water
Stack vent - vent above the soil stack, lavatory, etc
Waste stack - grey water
Vent stack - not directly above stack, off to the side

49
Q

Describe a septic system.

A

Solids are anaerobic decomposed, liquids to a leach field
Different types of soil absorb at different rates. Need percolation (perc) test

50
Q

What is an artesian well?

A

comes from an aquifer under positive pressure (earth on top of the water is so much that if you stick a pipe down into it, the water will come up)

51
Q

What is a shallow well?

A

single straw down to water (up to 25’) sucks water from underground

52
Q

What is a deep well?

A

deeper than 25’, uses deep well pump, sends some low pressure water down into the well, uses venturi effect to suck water up

53
Q

What are 1, 2, 4 pipe systems?

A

1 pipe system - water is not as hot near end of loop, but has a control valve so you can turn on / off different zones in a basic not that effective way
2 pipe system - for each fan coil unit has a return
4 pipe system - each coil has a hot and cold and a separate supply and return

54
Q

What is the Power equation?

A

W (power in watts) = I (current in amps) x V (voltage in volts, standard is 120V) x PF (power factor)

55
Q

What is non metallic sheathed cable?

A

two or more insulated conductors in a plastic sleeve (residential), easy to work with, not protected well

56
Q

What is flexible armored cable?

A

two or more insulated conductors in spiral wound steel tape
metal clad (MC) - has a separate ground wire

57
Q

What is Delta vs. Wye connected power?

A

Delta - has a single voltage available (phase to phase) so only 208V or 480V, 3 hot wires connected in a triangle, does not include a neutral wire*
*you will not be able to run most equipment directly off this arrangement

Wye - has two voltages available (phase to phase and phase to neutral) so 120/208V or 277/480V, has a neutral wire, connected in a Y shape

58
Q

What is a rectifier?

A

electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction

59
Q

What is an inverter?

A

electrical device that converts direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction to alternating current (AC) which periodically reverses direction

60
Q

What are disconnects / safety switches / switch gear?

A

first thing where power comes in bldg, a switch that can turn off other switches behind it, for emergency situations so you don’t have to touch high voltage high amp

leaves emergency power on

61
Q

What is a GFI (ground fault interrupter outlet)?

A

receptacles that will interrupt circuits if they sense a 4 to 6 milliamp difference in current between the hot and neutral wires at the outlet

used wherever there will be water

62
Q

What is a transformer?

A

step down public power to a voltage usable by buildings
watts stay constant, but volts and amps change

occasionally can be used to step power up

63
Q

What are the pros and cons of an exterior transformer?

A

pro: no bldg space, no noise in bldg, low initial cost, easy maintenance & replacement, no interior heat generated, can use oil without having to fire rate

64
Q

What are the pros and cons of a below grade transformer?

A

common in urban settings

pro: useful when little land is available, o bldg space, no noise in bldg, low initial cost, easy maintenance & replacement, no interior heat generated, can use oil without having to fire rate

con: earthwork costs

65
Q

What are the pros and cons of an interior transformer?

A

oil filled transformer must be located in a fire rated vault with the switchboard in an adjacent row
dry type transformers may be combined with switchboard in a main elec room or suubstation

con: requires proper ventilation for safety & heat loss, noise, heat generation

66
Q

What is Ohm’s Law

A

current is directly proportional to voltage & indirectly proportional to resistance. if current increases, voltage increases
V = I x R, I = V / R, R = V / I

67
Q

What is the electrical set up for a shed?

A

120V, single phase, 2 wire

68
Q

What is the electrical set up for a single family residence?

A

120V/240V, single phase, 3-wire
The 240V for the high voltage equipment (AC system, electric range, electric dryer)

69
Q

What is the electrical set up for a larger bldg?

A

120V/208V, 3 phase, 4 wire
3 phases - because voltage cycles to 0 twice per second (sine wave) and you want to ensure the 0s don’t line up because that wears down your motor, req more maintenance, and more power

70
Q

What is the electrical set up for a really big building?

A

277V/480V, 3 phase, 4 wire
480V for motors, pumps, elevators, etc

71
Q

What do decibels measure? What is the threshold of hearing and threshold of pain? If you double the distance how many decibels drop?

A

(dB)
unit of sound pressure / intensity
0 dB = threshold of hearing
130 dB = threshold of pain
every time you double a distance there is a 6db drop

72
Q

What are A weighted decibels?

A

an expression of the relative loudness of sounds as perceived by the human ear

73
Q

What are octave bands

A

groupings of decibels (dB) and frequency (HZ)

74
Q

What is the speed of sound?

A

typically moves 1,128 feet per sec, about 1 ft per millisecond

75
Q

What is (acoustic) transmission?

A

the propagation of a sound wave through an object or medium

76
Q

What is (acoustic) reflection?

A

the bouncing back of the sound wave on striking a surface such as a wall, metal sheet, plywood, etc.

77
Q

What is (acoustic) absorption?

A

the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in sound energy when sound waves are encountered

78
Q

What is absorption coefficient?

A

represented by alpha symbol
0-1, 0 means all the sound energy is absorbed, 1 means none of the sound energy is absorbed

79
Q

What is noise reduction coefficient (NRC)?

A

the avg of sound absorption at four frequency bands
0-1
higher means quieter, good is above .75

80
Q

What is reverberation time? And what are some typ reverberation times per room type?

A

time it takes for the sound to drop by 60 dB
Decay takes longer in a larger room or less absorptive room
2 sec - concert hall (least amt of speech)
1.5 sec - opera house
1 sec - theater
.75 sec - classroom
.5 sec - small office
.25 sec - living room

81
Q

What is transmission loss?

A

the accumulated decrease in intensity of a waveform energy as a wave propagates outwards from a source, higher means quieter

82
Q

What are flanking paths?

A

“leaks” where sound can get in
ex:
through ducts
through ceiling into plenum
transmission and impact loss thru partition
loss thru outlets and other openings
leaks at floor / wall intersection
impact sounds thru floor

83
Q

What are strategies for sound reduction in wall construction?

A

massive - single layer gwb < multilayer GWB with staggered panel joints
airtight: ex. standard block wall < grout filled block wall
structurally discontinuous: ex. standard stud wall < staggered stud wall or double stud wall or resilient clip

84
Q

What is Noise Criteria level (NC)? What is the range of quiet to loud?

A

relative loudness of “background” noise in a space, higher means more noise
Lower than NC 30 is quiet, louder than NC 55 is loud

85
Q

What is STC (Sound Transmission Class)?

A

an integer rating of how well a building partition attenuates airborne sound, higher means quieter
50 STC req between multi fam

86
Q

What is Impact Isolation Class (IIC)?

A

measures impact sound transmissions through floor assemblies
higher means quieter
req atleast 50 between multi fam,
fix with resilient mat in the floor detail

87
Q

How can you reduce mechanical noise?

A

Overall - the more space you can allow to mech space the better
Have silencer inside duct
Increase duct length
Internally lined duct - but there are air quality concerns with this
Have slower duct velocities
Smooth duct transitions rather than abrupt

88
Q

How do you space skylights?

A

1.5 x ceiling height = spacing O.C.

89
Q

What is color rendering index (CRI)?

A

a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with a natural or standard light source, 0 - 100 with 100 being perfect
For us to see a color there has to be that color in the source light

90
Q

What is correlated color temperature?

A

color that the lamp appears (warmer - cooler)
higher temperature lights are cooler, lower temperature lights are warmer

91
Q

What is an incandescent lamp? What are the pros and cons?

A

tungsten filament placed in a sealed bulb with inert gas
Pro: high color rendition index (CRI=100), inexpensive, compact, dimmable, warm light
Con: low efficiency (lot of watts going in and less lumens going out), short life, high heat

92
Q

What is a fluorescent lamp? What are the pros and cons?

A

a mixture of inert gas and low pressure mercury vapor. Requires a ballast which produces noise. Class A lights are quietest, Class F are loudest
Pro: high efficiency, low cost, long life, variable colors, dimmable
Con: CRI of 65-85

93
Q

What are the features of metal halide lamps? Pros & cons?

A

High color temp (cooler looking), CRI of 85
Long lamp life
Used in stadiums, warehouses, car washes, etc

94
Q

What are the features of high pressure sodium lamps? Pros & cons?

A

CRI of 20
Often in street lighting
Long lamp life, very efficient

95
Q

What are the features of high light emitting diodes? Pros & cons?

A

Pro - high CRI (85), produce minimal heat, low energy cost, long life span, very efficient
Con - have a hard time shedding heat, fade as they die

96
Q

What are some strategies to utilize daylight in an office?

A

Occupancy sensor
Zoning of lights - lights closest to window on one sensor, mostly off, next row in 50% on, etc
Demand response - shed lighting laid during peak energy usage times

97
Q

What is Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD)?

A

over time lamps produce less light, so you overlight at beginning, knowing that the lamps will degrade, number from 0-1, if you lose 10% of LLD you have an LLD of .9

98
Q

What are footcandles?

A

the unit of illlumination, equal to the number of lumens falling on each SF of a surface
= lumens / area in sf
normal interior levels are 10-100

99
Q

What are wet pipe sprinklers?

A

most common, the sprinkler piping is constantly filled with water. When the temperature at the ceiling gets hot enough the glass bulb or fusible link in a sprinkler will break. Since the system is already filled with water, water is free to flow out of that sprinkler head

100
Q

What is a dry pipe sprinkler?

A

filled with pressurized air or nitrogen instead of water to prevent frozen and burst sprinkler pipes in areas with colder temperatures, best for unconditioned space in a cold climate

101
Q

What is a pre-action sprinkler?

A

a dry sprinkler system, water is not contained in the pipes but is held back by a pre-action valve. A voice command will then say sprinkler are about to go off in 30 second, giving the opportunity to cancel the sprinklers

102
Q

What is a deluge sprinkler?

A

for high hazard area, when triggered, all the sprinkler heads in a zone will spray

103
Q

What is fire extinguisher type A?

A

water based, used for paper or wood

104
Q

What is fire extinguisher type B?

A

foam based, used for chemical fires

105
Q

What is a fire extinguisher type C?

A

foam based, used for electrical

106
Q

What is a fire extinguisher type D?

A

foam based, used for combustible metals

107
Q

What is a hydraulic elevator? Pros & cons?

A

powered by hydraulic jack, which are fluid-driven pistons that travel inside of a cylinder

pro: low initial cost, low maintenance cost

con: high energy demand, hydraulic fluid is an environmental hazard, slow, limited travel distance

108
Q

What is a traction elevator? Pros & cons?

A

utilize steel ropes or belts on a pulley system

pro: more efficient, last longer, require less maintenance, faster, smoother ride, longer travel distance

con: high initial cost, medium maintenance cost

109
Q

What is a geared elevator?

A

traction, max rise of 150’, 5-15 stops, 500 fpm
has more torque, so often used in freight elevators

110
Q

What is a gearless elevator?

A

traction, max rise of 2000’, 15-60 stops, 2400 fpm

111
Q

What is a machine roomless elevator? Pros & cons?

A

either traction or hydraulic
mac height 250’ max
500 fpm (traction), 150 fpm (hydraulic)

pro: requires less space, energy efficient, similar cost to general traction

con: difficult to implement, restricted by code, no destination dispatch system, not suitable for freight

112
Q

What is the shaft requirement for hoistway?

A

required to have a vent that is 3.5% of hoistway or 3 sf, whichever is bigger

113
Q

What are the capacities of an escalator?

A

Slope: 30-35
Speed: 100 to 125 fpm
Clearance: 7ft req.
Max rise: 20-40 ft, 60ft if supported in the middle

114
Q

How does pipe “schedule” naming work?

A

Pipe sizes are named by wall thickness, have same diameter (ex. Schedule 40 pipe has thinner walls than schedule 80)

115
Q

What is a low slope roof? What are the possible issues?

A

less than 2” per foot or 17% (but above 1/4” per ft)

Relatively slow drainage, small errors resulting in ponding. Membranes must be flawlessly watertight. Water vapor from the building inside or wind from outside can cause blistering, flapping, displaced or cracked membranes

But can cover buildings of any horizontal scale, simpler geometry, can be planted & occupied

116
Q

What is a steep roof? What are the possible issues?

A

greater than 2” per foot or 17%

Use gravity to shed water, overlap small units (shakes, shingles, thatching, etc). These smaller units can be easily repaired and replaced, and bend and flex with the roofs expansion and contraction.

However they are visible

117
Q

What are 3 ways to slope the roof?

A
• slope the structure
• taper the structure
• tapering the insulation
118
Q

What are topside roof vents?

A

Allows moisture vapor to escape from beneath the membrane but closes to prevent water or air from entering

119
Q

What are 3 types of low slope roof membranes?

A
• bituminous (made from asphalt, overlapping layers)
• single-ply (rolled up plastic that we unroll)
• fluid applied (take a chemical sealant and mop or spray it on)
120
Q

What is emissivity?

A

ability for the roof to shed heat, high emissivity roof means it can shed the heat quickly so its cooler

121
Q

What is albedo?WHat % albedo do we want minimum?

A

solar reflectance, high albedo is light color & reflective (we want atleast 65% albedo)

122
Q

What is the difference in strength b/w springwood & summer wood?

A

Summerwood - grows slower, more strength
Springwood - grows faster, less strength

123
Q

What is the modulus of elasticity?

A

measure of overall strength / stiffness, higher number means stronger

124
Q

What is plain sawn wood?

A

cheaper, more likely to warp, produces less waste

125
Q

What is quarter sawn wood?

A

finer grain (better aesthetics), more dimensionally stable, more expensive

126
Q

What is moisture content (MC)?

A

how much moisture is in the wood, the less moisture the greater structural quality
MC = ((Weight when wet - weight when dry)/Weight when dry) * 100
Ex. MC15 = 15% moisture, MC19 = 19% moisture, MC15 is stronger

127
Q

What are 3 grades of wood?

A

#1 structural framing - for headers and long spans
Utility grade - for blocking, etc

128
Q

What is glue laminated wood?

A

layers of dimensional lumber bonded together with durable, moisture-resistant structural adhesives so that all of the grain runs parallel to the longitudinal axis

129
Q

What is cross-laminated timber?

A

several layers of kiln-dried lumber boards stacked in alternating directions, bonded with structural adhesives, and pressed to form a solid, straight, rectangular panel

Lightweight yet very strong, with superior acoustic, fire, seismic and thermal performance, CLT is also fast and easy to install, generating almost no waste onsite.

130
Q

What is laminated strand lumber?

A

dried and graded wood veneers, strands or flakes that are layered upon one another and bonded together with a moisture-resistant adhesive into large blocks known as billets

(longer strands) not super strong, inexpensive

131
Q

What is oriented strand lumber?

A

OSL is made from flaked wood strands that have a length-to-thickness ratio of approximately 75. The wood strands used in OSL are shorter than those in LSL. Unlike OSB, the strands in OSL are arranged parallel to the longitudinal axis of the member

132
Q

What is parallel strand lumber?

A

Dried and graded wood strands are layered upon one another and bonded together with a moisture-resistant adhesive into large blocks known as billets
In the case of PSL, long strands (longer than those used in LSL) are laid lengthwise in parallel.

strong, heavy, relatively expensive

133
Q

What are wood i-joists?

A

dimensional lumber with an OSL board in between, used in floors, roofs, etc

134
Q

What is laminated veneer lumber?

A

an engineered wood product that uses multiple layers of thin wood assembled with adhesives
like plywood but thicker

135
Q

What are wood plastic composites?

A

weather resistant, less likely to shrink and warp more flexible

136
Q

How do you calculate board feet?

A

Board feet = (nominal width (in) x nominal ht (in) x length (ft)) / 12

137
Q

What are the differences between nominal and actual dimensions?

A

1 - 5/4 = -1/4”
2 - 7 = -1/2”
8 - 12 = -3/4”

138
Q

What is oriented strand board? What is it used for?

A

strongest & stiffest of nonveneered panels
most common in subfloors and exterior sheathing

139
Q

What is fiberboard?

A

made from the smallest grain of wood (compared to OSB and particleboard)
best for interior uses
smoothest surface

140
Q

What is sheathing rating # / # ?

A

roof spacing OC / floor spacing OC
ex. 32/16 means spacing of 32” OC for roof and 16” OC for floor

141
Q

What are the plywood bond classifications?

A

Exterior - for exterior use
Exposure 1 - can handle some water, etc, but not meant to be exposed to weather long term (95% of plywood)

142
Q

When do you have to treat wood?

A

-Wood joists are less than 18” above grade
-Wood beams or girders are less than 12” above grade
-Plates, sills, or sleepers are in direct contact with masonry or concrete which is in direct contact with the earth
-Wood framing members or sheathing are less than 8” from the soil

143
Q

What woods are VERY decay resistant?

A

black locust, red mulberry, osage orange, pacific yew

144
Q

What woods are SLIGHTLY decay resistant?

A

cypress, catalpa, cedar, chestnut, white oak, redwood, black walnut

145
Q

What is balloon vs platform framing?

A

Balloon - requires fire stopping,
Platform - Newer and more common now, shorter lumber, less prone to fire spread, can frame wall horizontally

146
Q

What are strategies for drainage @ the foundation?

A

dampproofing / waterproofing
Overhangs
Drip edges
Sloping ground away
Gravel fill

147
Q

What is a rim board or band joist

A

Sits on top of the header or floor below or foundation

Seals the open ends o the joists
provides surface for attachment of exterior insulation, cladding, and finish elements

Transfers some of the loads to the floor below

After the attic, this is the most likely place for insulation gaps & air infiltration

148
Q

What is an ice guard?

A

a mat under the shingles at the outermost edge of the roof to prevent ice or water from infiltrating the roof construction

149
Q

What is the attic vent ratio?

A

IBC requires min vent area 1/150th of attic footprint or, if theres a vapor barrier, 1/300th

150
Q

Which is stronger, cold rolled or hot rolled steel?

A

Cold rolled steel is stronger than mild steel

151
Q

How does carbon content affect metal strength / brittleness?

A

the more a metal has, the stronger but more brittle

-cast iron is stronger than wrought iron b/c carbon content

152
Q

depth to span ratio: beam

A

Beam depth is generally 1/20 the span, width is ⅓ the depth

153
Q

depth to span ratio: girder

A

Girder depth is 1/15 the span, width is ⅓ the depth

154
Q

depth to span ratio: open web

A

Open web is 1/20 the span
Roofs, lightly loaded floors, or closely spaced can be 1/24 the span

155
Q

depth to span ratio: steel decking

A

Steel decking depth is 1/40 the span

156
Q

depth to span ratio: triangular steel truss

A

Triangular steel truss depth is ¼ the span

157
Q

depth to span ratio: rectangular steel truss

A

Rectangular truss depth is ⅛ the span

158
Q

What is Type 1 cement?

A

normal

159
Q

What is Type 1A cement?

A

Normal, air entrained. Tiny bubbles introduced to the concrete and those help with durability (freeze/thaw) and make the concrete more workable, Used for exposed concrete in cold climates

160
Q

What is Type 2 cement?

A

moderate resistance to sulfates. for coming into contact with groundwater or below grade in sulfate heavy soil.

161
Q

What is Type 2A cement?

A

moderate sulfate resistance, air entraining

162
Q

What is Type 3 cement?

A

high early strength concrete. useful for precast concrete, concrete block manufacturing, tilt up concrete, and anywhere we would want to strip the formwork soon after pouring

163
Q

What is Type 3A cement?

A

high early strength, air entraining

164
Q

What is Type 4 cement?

A

low heat of hydration. for massive structures like dams where there is so much heat of hydration

165
Q

What is Type 5 cement?

A

High resistance to sulfate attack

166
Q

What is the aggregate sizing rule of thumb?

A

have the aggregate be less than ¾ the distance between rebar and less than ⅓ the depth of a slab

167
Q

What is the rebar naming convention?

A

Rebar # refers to the 1/8ths of an inch in diameter
Ex. #8 rebar is 8/8” or 1” diameter

168
Q

A

Grade 60 = 60k PSI, most common
Also comes in 40 & 75, use 75 for columns

169
Q

What is the correct amount for rebar overlap?

A

Overlap rebar at the ends by 30x the diameter or use reinforcing bar couplers

170
Q

What is prestressed concrete?

A

is substantially “prestressed” (compressed) during production, in a manner that strengthens it against tensile forces which will exist when in service. This compression is produced by the tensioning of high-strength “tendons” located within or adjacent to the concrete

Pre-tensioned - mostly precast concrete

Post-tensioned - mostly cast in place

171
Q

What are the steps to pouring a slab on grade concrete pad?

A
1. Scrape topsoil off to reveal a more stable subsoil. if the subsoil is not stable you need to truck some in
2. At least 4” inches of 1.5” crushed stone to make a capillary break. roll out plastic sheet for moisture barrier
3. Formwork. Edge of metal or wood supported by in-ground stakes
4. Welded wire reinforcing on chairs or bolsters, or concrete brick to prevent rust moving through
5. Pour the slab
6. Scree the slab to make level
7. Keep damp for atleast a week
8. Control joints every 15’
172
Q

What is a control joint vs isolation joint?

A

Control joint - extend parkway down the depth of the slab and are intended to limit cracking

Isolation joint - go all the way clear through the slab, used for expansion/contraction, seismic, vibration/noise isolation, or breaking up the irregular shapes of a building

173
Q

concrete beam depth & width ratio

A

Width = 3 x height

174
Q

one way slab depth

A

4” - 20” deep, 1/22 the span, post tensioned 1/40 the span

175
Q

two way slab depth

A

5” - 12” deep, 1/30 the span, 1/45 if post tensioned

176
Q

drop panels depth

A

⅓ the span, ½ slab depth

177
Q

waffle slab depth

A

3” - 4.5” (plus depth of dome/pan), 1/24 the span, 1/35 if post tension

178
Q

concrete beams depth

A

1/16 the span, 1/24 if posttension

179
Q

concrete girders depth

A

1/12 the span, 1/20 if posttension

180
Q

What is pre-tensioned pre-cast concrete?

A

compressive stresses induced by high-strength steel tendons in a concrete member before loads are applied will balance the tensile stresses imposed in the member during service

181
Q

mortar type M

A

182
Q

mortar type S

A

exterior reinforced masonry, exterior load bearing masonry, veneers subject to seismic or high wind loads

183
Q

mortar type N

A

general purpose, balance of workability and strength, non-loadbearing veneers and chimneys, interior load bearing walls

184
Q

mortar type O

A

185
Q

mortar strength pnemonic device

A

word “MaSoNwOrK”, every other letter lists them in order of high to low strength

186
Q

modular brick size

A

3 ⅝ x 2 ¼ x 7 ⅝ , 3 stacks are 8” high

187
Q

utility brick size

A

3 ⅝ x 3 ⅝ x 11 ⅝, use less mortar, making it stronger and less expensive wall

188
Q

typical mortar height

A

⅜” is typical mortar height, ranges ¼” - ½”

189
Q

What is FBA brick?

A

facing brick - more variation insize and chippage (aesthetic reasons) (A nomaly)

190
Q

What is FBS brick?

A

facing brick - some variation in size and chippage (S tandard)

191
Q

What is FBX brick?

A

facing brick - more dimensionally uniform and less chippage (X act)

192
Q

What are paving bricks?

A

used for horizontal surfaces, superior freeze thaw resistance, lower water absorption rates

193
Q

What is fire brick?

A

superior heat resistance, uses a special fire clay mortar and thinner joints

194
Q

What is MW brick?

A

weather resistant, for exterior use but only in weather negligible area (M iami brick)

195
Q

What is NW brick?

A

interior only (N terior brick)

196
Q

What is SW brick?

A

used for underground applications, acceptable for any climate, toughest brick (S now brick aka best for outside)

197
Q

What is the modulus of rupture?

A

most important for determining a stones ability to accept metal anchor that hold them to buildings

198
Q

What is flexural strength?

A

most important for stone’s resistance to wind

199
Q

What is compressive strength (stone)?

A

most important for stone in load bearing wall

200
Q

What are strap anchors?

A

anchor the mortar to the wall between courses of stone

201
Q

What is regular (dense) concrete?

A

stronger, but heavier and poor thermal resistance

202
Q

What is lightweight concrete?

A

uses lightweight aggregate, weaker but higher thermal resistance

203
Q

What is aerated concrete?

A

admixture creates air bubbles in concrete, even higher thermal resistance but even weaker

204
Q

What are the most common CMU dimensions?

A

8 x 8 x 16 or 7 ⅝” x 7 ⅝” x 15 ⅝”

205
Q

How do you avoid water penetration in masonry?

A

Double wythe concrete block with capillary break
Finished with stucco, special paints, or special coatings that provide water resistance
Made with water repellent concrete and water repellent mortar
Use in arid climates

206
Q

what are the different types of water / air / vapor control layers?

A

Peel & stick
Liquid applied (spray or rolled on)
Building wrap (Tyvek)
Only works if lapped, is only for rain or air not both
Tar paper
Have to be very careful when applying these sealants

207
Q

How do you seal a window?

A

Can be with self adhered membranes, fluid applied, or pre-manufactured rigid

208
Q

What are air barrier materials?

A

Gypsum board, OSB (if sealed properly), house wrap (if taped), plastic membrane, peel and stick membrane, spray more, concrete, glass & metal, roof membrane

We want walls with high r value and low u value

209
Q

lDoes insulation inside or outside of structure have less thermal bridges? What are other methods for reducing thermal transfer from outside to inside?

A

insulation has less thermal bridges when outboard of the structure
also shading, radiant barriers, low e, shiny rooms, thermal breaks, thermal mass

210
Q

What is foam plastic insulation?

A

water tolerant, air impermeable, includes expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene
All are used as water vapor and air barrier (need to be taped)

211
Q

What is expanded polystyrene (EPS)?

A

foam / plastic insulation, cheaper and more easily worked in field, good for underground

212
Q

What is extruded polystyrene (XPS)?

A

foam /plastic insulation, more insulation per inch

213
Q

What is polyisocyanurate?

A

foam / plastic insulation, cannot be used underground, less flammable

214
Q

What is closed cell spray foam (CCSPF)?

A

foam / plastic insulation, continuous, exposed to water for long periods of time, can be used below grade

215
Q

What is open cell spray foam?

A

foam / plastic insulation, interior only (no water), not a vapor or water or air barrier, better for noise insulation, less expensive, mold resistant, less insulative per inch than closed cell

216
Q

What is glass fiber insulation?

A

Have self supporting and semi-rigid versions for exterior use, cannot be used as an air rain or vapor barrier, can serve as capillary break drainage plane, less expensive than foam, more fire resistant

217
Q

What is mineral wool insulation?

A

inexpensive, can be used in exterior, can be capillary break drainage plane, fire resistant

218
Q

What are the classes of vapor retarder?

A

Class 1: less than 0.1 perms
- Foil, thick polyethylene sheet, vinyl wallpaper, white boards
Class 2: 0.1 - 1.0 perms
- Some plywoods, some latex paints, kraft paper, rigid foam insulation
Class 3: 1 - 10 perms
Greater than 10 perms is vapor permeable

219
Q

where do you place vapor control layer?

A

Vapor barrier on warm side of insulation
Warm climate - outside insulation
Cold climate - inside insulation

220
Q

which climate zones need a vapor control layer?

A

Climate zone 1, 2, 3, 4a, 4b
- For above ground framed wall, can get away with no vapor control layer
Don’t use class 1 if humid summers

Climate zone 4c, 5, 6, 7,8
- Need vapor control on inside of insulation (interior side), use class 1 or 2
- Can use class 3 sheathing in zones 4c or 5 if there is vented exterior cladding and sheathing is greater

221
Q

what will determine the diameter of a long skinny column?

A

For long and skinny columns that are not placed far apart, the diameter of the column will likely be controlled by buckling rather than the load from above

222
Q

What is a theoretical k value?

A

higher k, more likely to buckle
Multiply by column length
Works for steel or concrete, recommended design k value is for wood

223
Q

What is shear a function of?

A

length

224
Q

what is the moment a function of?

A

length squared

225
Q

what is deflection a function of?

A

length cubed

226
Q

what typically controls beam size?

A

bending moment

227
Q

between shear walls, braced frame, and moment resisting frame - what is most and least expensive?

A

shear wall - least expensive
moment resisting frame - most expensive (because you have to put extra bolts on each connection)

228
Q

what is the bending moment formula?

A

M(max bending moment) = (w (load per ft) x L^2)/8

229
Q

what is the max bending stress formula?

A

Fb = M (max bending moment in-lbs)/S (section modulus in^3)

230
Q

what does the section modulus indicate?

A

how robust is the geometry of the beam

231
Q

Where should you place sound absorbing material in order to best reduce the build up of low frequency sound?

A

near the corners and edges of walls

232
Q

An HVAC duct running through a fire-rated wall would require what?

A

A fire damper

233
Q

Typically, what percentage of concrete’s volume is taken up by aggregates?

A

234
Q

List 4 suitable materials for piles.

A

Steel H-shape, steel pipe, precast concrete, and wood

235
Q

What are 4 ingredients in portland cement?

A

limestone, clay, iron ore, and gypsum

236
Q

What is enthalpy?

A

Enthalpy is a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the total heat content of a system. It is equal to the internal energy of the system plus the product of pressure and volume.

237
Q

Beyond what decibel level does sound start to be considered harmful?

A

Sustained sounds at 80 decibels and above can cause permanent hearing loss. Sounds at 125 dbA and above cause pain.

238
Q

What 4 ingredients are present in a standard concrete mixture?

A

Concrete contains portland cement, admixtures, water, and aggregate.

239
Q

In a W12x210 column, what does the 210 represent?

A

In a W12x210 steel I-beam, the 210 represents the weight of the steel per linear foot. The 12 represents the approximate depth of the web, and may vary a few inches in either direction.

240
Q

What is Grade K copper pipe used for?

A

underground supply water pipes

241
Q

What is Grade L copper pipe used for?

A

plumbing systems within a building

242
Q

What is Grade M copper pipe used for?

A

drainage piping, branch supply lines, chilled water systems, and exposed lines in heating systems

243
Q

What are the three basecoat plasters?

A

Wood-fibered plaster
Bond plaster

244
Q

What is a construction joint?

A

used where two separate placements of concrete meet and where reinforcement may be continuous.

245
Q

What is a cold joint?

A

used when a concrete slab is too large to be completed in a single concrete pour

246
Q

List 5 common non-combustible materials.

A

concrete
brick and cmu masonry
metals (except aluminum)
sheet & block glass
mineral and rock wool

247
Q

How thick are single and double strength glass?

A

Single-strength glass is approximately 3/32″ thick.
Double-strength glass is approximately 1/8″ thick.

248
Q

What climate is porous concrete paving suitable for?

A

warmer climates
(because freeze / thaw)

249
Q

What type of labor is the most expensive?

A

Field labor is generally most expensive because it involves the most varying conditions.

250
Q

What is a downfeed water supply system? When do you use it?

A

In highrise buildings it makes the most sense to use a downfeed water supply system.

In this system, water is pumped from the base of the building to storage tanks at the top. The water is distributed from these storage tanks as it’s needed.

251
Q

What does a mixing box adjust?

A

Mixing boxes are used in HVAC systems and connected to thermostats. A mixing boxes job is to adjust the quantity and/or temperature of the air while simultaneously reducing the air velocity.

252
Q

What is the name for the tile with the highest moisture absorption rate?

A

No tile is truly waterproof but non-vitreous tile has the highest moisture absorption rate. This type of tile is typically not suitable for use in very wet areas such as showers.

253
Q

What percentage of floor area does an all air system need?

A

3 - 10%

254
Q

What percentage of floor area does an all water system need?

A

1 - 3%

255
Q

What percentage of floor area does an air/water system need?

A

3 - 10%

256
Q

What are 2 methods to detect air infiltration?

A

The air change method measures how often the air in a building is replaced with new air.

The crack method uses the total length of cracks or joints to estimate how much air infiltration there is.

257
Q

What is sandwiched in laminated glass?

A

polyvinyl butyral (PVB) aka resin

258
Q

What are the two types of loudspeaker systems?

A

A central system has an array of directional high-frequency units combined with less directional low-frequency units placed above and slightly in from of the sound source.

A distributed system consists of low-level loudspeakers located overhead throughout the space.

259
Q

Radon is a developed from what source?

A

260
Q

What entity is primarily responsible for enforcing and monitoring a building’s air rights?

A

Air rights are monitored and enforced by local planning departments through the zoning ordinance.

261
Q

At what moisture content is wood considered green?

A

30% and above

262
Q

Why is camber often built into a glued laminated beam? (3 reasons)

A

to avoid the appearance of sag

to eliminate the ponding of water on top of a sagging beam

to compensate for deflection

263
Q

Which lighting types are most poorly suited for application in a cold climate?

A

The starting and operation of fluorescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting systems can be affected by abnormal temperatures.

In low-temperature environments such as refrigerated areas, fluorescent lamps can experience adverse performance such as “fluttering,” reduced light output and difficulty starting by the ballast. In such applications, enclosed fixtures, special “cold weather” fluorescent lamps and/or jacketed lamps can help ensure reliable performance

264
Q

What is K value?

A

thermal conductivity of a material

265
Q

Ordinary sprinkler heads activate in what temperature range?

A

135° – 170° F

266
Q

Do more or less dense materials transmit sound faster?

A

more dense

267
Q

How do intumescent materials respond to heat?

A

Intumescent materials rapidly expand when exposed to heat creating a sacrificial layer.

268
Q

When making concrete, what is the typical order in which the ingredients are added?

A

Cement
Aggregates
Water

269
Q

What is the best elevator for a skyscraper?

A

For a skyscraper, a gearless traction elevator would be most appropriate due to it’s 500 to 1,200 ft/min movement speed, long life, and smooth ride.

270
Q

What is the best elevator for a mid rise building?

A

Geared traction elevators move slower and are much better suited for mid-rise buildings.

271
Q

How far can a hydraulic elevator travel?

A

30-60 ft

272
Q

What is a LULA

A

a Limited Use/ Limited Application elevator. It is a hybrid between a full-size commercial elevator and a wheelchair lift. It is intended to provide accessibility in low-rise buildings.

273
Q

What is the most severe flame spread rating?

A

C

274
Q

What is the least severe flame spread rating?

A

A

275
Q

What are 3 strategies to address reentrant corners in designing a building mass?

A

In general there are two basic solutions to addressing reentrant corners: strengthening the corners and separating the building into less complex geometries. Using seismic joints effectively separates the building into separate geometries. Stronger connections and splayed (or chamfered) corners strengthen the corners.

276
Q

Which of these plastic pipes are flexible: ABS, CPVC, PEX-AL-PEX, PE, PP, PVC?

A

PEX-AL-PEX, PE

277
Q

Which of these plastic pipes are not flexible: ABS, CPVC, PEX-AL-PEX, PE, PP, PVC?

A

ABS, CPVC, PP, PVC

278
Q

What is the minimum flow velocity in a wastewater system?

A

Grades are sloped to provide a velocity between 2.5 feet per second and 10 feet per second.

279
Q

Fluorescent lighting tends to give off what color light?

A

blue

280
Q

What floor finish is best for mid/high frequency noises?

A

carpet/resilient floor tiles

281
Q

What elements of a floor assembly is best for low frequency noises?

A

suspended ceilings and floated floors

282
Q

what metal can be used in saltwater/marine environment

A

stainless steel

283
Q

What metals can be paired with aluminum?

A

Use with galvanized steel

Do not use with brass, stainless steel (water stains, carbon steel (mild steel),

284
Q

When do you use mastic vs thinset for tile application?

A

mastic dries quickly for a no sag application of tile
thinset is a cement product, always used for floor tiles

285
Q

What is the Balance Point Temperature?

A

the outdoor temperature at which a building makes a transition from a heating need to a cooling need

If outside is colder = heating
If outside is higher = cooling

286
Q

Elements of a passive thermal building

A
1. south facing window
2. conditioned space
3. well insulated and sealed windows
4. thermal mass
287
Q

Economizer cycle

A

Economizers typically operate at night when the outdoor air is cooler than the indoor air in a process known as “free cooling”. Economizers mix enough outdoor air into the indoor air in order to meet the thermostat setpoint without using the compressor.

288
Q

What happens when a building or facade has negative air pressure?

A

water is sucked in through building skin

289
Q

energy recovery ventilator

A

stale hot air crosses over with cold fresh air in the heat exchange cone

save money on utility bills

290
Q

VAV HVAC system

A

Central fan coil unit that distributes air throughout zones. Heat source is located at supply

291
Q

Graphics for supply and return (hvac?)

A

X = supply, / = return

292
Q

What 3 types of insulation is used for sound absorption?

A
1. mineral wool
2. fiberglass
3. rock wool
293
Q

What is the delineation for S-DRY vs S-GRN?

A

S-DRY = MC of 19% or less
S-GRN = MC of 19% or more

294
Q

What types of wood are used for framing?

A

pine, spruce, hemlock (softwoods)

295
Q

What is plumbing wall cavity min width?

A

back to back = 16”
one side = 12”

296
Q

What are the graphics for plumbing supply and return?

A

supply = dash dot dot dash
return = dash dot dot dot dash

297
Q

When do you use a swamp & ejector pump?

A

a pump for when water is below grade

298
Q

What is the voltage of a US outlet?

A

120V

299
Q

What path does electricity take from power line to ground?

A

power line - transformer - electrical (main distribution) panel - appliance - ground (neutral wire ties into ground at transformer and after appliance)

300
Q

What are the two types of smoke detetors?

A

ionization - detect at early stage, very sensitive (not for kitchens)
photoelectric - detects combustion

301
Q

Fire alarm control panels connect to which systems

A

alarm horn, calls fire department, duct smoke dampers, elevator systems, hold-open doors, wet pipe sprinkler system

302
Q

What goes into a parapet assembly (outside to inside)?

A

metal coping, flashing, membrane, insulation, air/vapor barrier, structure

303
Q

What is the beam depth formula?

A

1/20 x span = depth

304
Q

What is the decking depth formula?

A

1/40 x span = depth

305
Q

What is the decking depth formula?

A

1/4 x span = depth

306
Q

What is the rectangular truss depth formula?

A

1/8 x span = depth

307
Q

Air to water system

A

fan over condenser, pumped water over evaporator - heat moves through air, cooling moves through water

308
Q

construction type I & II

A

noncombustible, allowing for bigger buildings but more restrictions on usage of materials

309
Q

construction type III

A

noncombustible exterior walls and interior building elements of any material allowed by code

310
Q

construction type IV

A

Heavy Timber, exterior walls are of noncombustible material and the interior building elements are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces

311
Q

construction type V

A

Type V construction is where the structural elements, exterior walls and interior walls are of any material allowed by code, combustible or noncombustible (shorter buildings)

312
Q

A heat pump in a refrigeration loop is used to __________.

A

Refrigeration is simply the displacement of heating. A heat pump can be used in a refrigeration cycle to bring heat into a space.

313
Q

In veneer masonry construction where should weep holes be placed?

A

at the level of flashing where the drainage plane is interrupted

at each floor where the structure is attached to the facade, above each window and door, where the masonry meets the foundation

314
Q

A radon level above 400 Bq/m3 is discovered in a building. What are 3 ways of mitigating the radon risk?

A

Sub-slab depressurization (soil suction) by increasing under-floor ventilation;

Improving the ventilation of the house and avoiding the transport of radon from the basement into living rooms;

Installing a radon sump system in the basement;

Installing a positive pressurization or positive supply ventilation system.

315
Q

What materials can be used as a thermal mass?

A

concrete
brick
stone
tile
rammed earth
sand
water (or another liquid)

316
Q

What is water pressure from a city main (psi)?
And what is needed for a shower?

A

50 psi
12 psi

317
Q

What is k factor (relative to sprinklering)?

A

the rate at which sprinkler heads release water

(higher k factor means more water released at a lower pressure)

318
Q

What is more expensive to construct: CMU wall or steel stud wall?

A

CMU masonry

319
Q

When should you use raked or stripped mortar joints? Why?

A

Interior applications because they do not shed water

320
Q

How far does a fire wall have to span?

A

From foundation to 30” above roof

321
Q

How many risers before you need a landing?

A

12

322
Q

What is the difference between a smoke barrier and a smoke partition?

A

Smoke partitions do not resist fire, whereas smoke barriers do.

323
Q

What is a cold joint?

A

when a concrete slab is too large to be completed in a single concrete pour

324
Q

What is a construction joint?

A

used where two separate placements of concrete meet and where reinforcement may be continuous.

325
Q

What is a control joint?

A

tooled, sawed, or formed grooves in the concrete to create weak points where cracking can occur.

326
Q

What is an isolation joint?

A

used where adjacent areas of concrete may move in three directions and where the formation of cracks is to be avoided.

327
Q

What order should systems be laid out in a plenum from top to bottom?

A

Structure
HVAC equipment & ducts
Plumbing
Luminaires

328
Q

Which type construction has the highest fire rating? And how long is it?

A

Type 1A, 3 hours

329
Q

When do you use an anchor hinge?

A

heavy and frequent use

330
Q

When do you use a swing clear hinge?

A

when you need max clearance

331
Q

When do you use a detention hinge?

A

heavyweight for cells and steel doors of prisons

332
Q

When do you use a spring hinge?

A

when you want a door to be self closing

333
Q

List cathodes.

A

Gold, Silver, Stainless Steel, Copper, Brass, Titanium, Tin

334
Q

List anodes.

A

Mild steel, aluminum, zinc, magnesium, iron

335
Q

What is a SW brick?

A

severe weather

336
Q

Describe a wall assembly outside to inside.

A

(1) exterior cladding (for instance, brick)
(2) airspace
(3) exterior-grade insulation (for instance, XPS)
(4) a single layer (often fluid-applied) that provides rain/air/vapor control
(5) sheathing (OSB or exterior-rated gyp)
(6) an uninsulated cavity with pipes and conduit and ducts as necessary
(7) interior finish (for instance, interior rated gyp).

337
Q

Do you want the building period and ground period to match up or not?

A

No

This matching of both periods creates resonance. Resonance is the increase in acceleration of a vibrating object due to a harmony of periods.

338
Q

Does clay have a long, medium, or short period?

A

long

339
Q

Does sand have a long, medium, or short period?

A

intermediate

340
Q

Does rock have a long, medium, or short period?

A

short

341
Q

Do high-rises have a long, medium, or short period?

A

long

342
Q

Do mid-rises have a long, medium, or short period?

A

medium

343
Q

Do low-rises have a long, medium, or short period?

A

short

344
Q

What is a proprietary spec?

A

specific to a particular company

• unique to a particular company or manufacturer. They often include specific requirements, materials, or technologies that are exclusive to that company’s products.
345
Q

What is a reference spec?

A

industry standards or benchmarks

• serve as a standard or benchmark against which other products or designs can be compared.
• often established by industry organizations, government agencies, or recognized standards bodies.
346
Q

What is a performance spec?

A

define the desired functionality or capabilities of a product or system

• define the functional requirements and capabilities of a product or system.

-used in contracts and procurement processes to ensure that suppliers deliver products that meet the required performance standards.

347
Q

What is a static pressure system?

A
• water is supplied to buildings or properties from a municipal water supply or a well
• the system relies on the pressure exerted by the water source, such as gravity or a pump, to maintain a consistent pressure in the water distribution network.
• water flows through pipes and fixtures due to the pressure differential created by the elevation or pressure of the water source.
348
Q

What is a hydraulic pressure system?

A
• utilizes pumps to pressurize the water supply and maintain consistent pressure throughout the distribution network
• pumps are typically installed at water treatment plants or pumping stations to boost water pressure before it enters the distribution network
• commonly used in areas where the natural water pressure is insufficient to meet demand or where elevation changes require additional pressure.
349
Q

What is an ionization smoke detector?

A

ionization smoke detector contains a small bit of radioactive material that sits between two plates with electrical charges; the charge ionizes the air and causes a current to move between the plates. If smoke enters this chamber, the ion flow is disrupted and the alarm sounds.

more responsive to flaming fires

350
Q

What is a photoelectric smoke detector?

A

Photoelectric-type alarms aim a light source into a sensing chamber at an angle away from the sensor. Smoke enters the chamber, reflecting light onto the light sensor; triggering the alarm.

more responsive to fires that begin with a long period of smoldering (called “smoldering fires”)

351
Q

Are the top chords of a truss in tension or compression?

A

compression

352
Q

Are the bottom chords of a truss in tension or compression?

A

tension

353
Q

Are the vertical chords of a truss in tension or compression?

A

compression

354
Q

List ferrous metals.

A

Iron
Cast iron
Steel

355
Q

List non-ferrous metals.

A

Aluminum
Copper
Brass
Bronze
Zinc
Tin
Nickel
Titanium
Gold
Silver

356
Q

What is the size of the average parking space?

A

9’ x 20’

357
Q

What is the size of a drive aisle?

A

20’ - 24’

358
Q

How many sf per space should you assume when estimating the overall area of a parking lot?

A

300 - 350 sf per space

359
Q

What is the max distance a handicap spot could be from the entrance?

A

200’

360
Q

What angle of parking is most economical?

A

90 degree
but they are hardest to maneuver

361
Q

How does a two pipe HVAC system work?

A

only heating or cooling, not both
separate supply and return to each fan coil unit so each on gets hot or chilled water

362
Q

How does a four pipe HVAC system work?

A

both heating and cooling are available at the same time

363
Q

What are the maintenance needs for a fibrous air filter?

A

for dust, must be replaced

364
Q

What are the maintenance needs for a electrostatic air filter?

A

for dust, must be wiped down

365
Q

What are activated charcoal filters for?

A

odors or chemical

366
Q

How do all plumbing drains flow?

A

either vertically or nearly horizontally (1% - 4%)

367
Q

What is greywater?

A

wastewater that does not contain food waste or human waste. it can be captured and stored for irrigation use

368
Q

What does a swamp and ejector pump do?

A

for carrying wastewater generated in the basement upward

369
Q

What is a capped air chamber?

A

a vertical pipe that is capped at the top and filled with air to prevent water hammer and regulate pressure

370
Q

What is a shock arrestor?

A

a device that absorbs the shock when water flow in a piping system suddenly stops or changes direction

prevents water hammer

371
Q

Describe the friction and thermal expansion of metal piping.

A

but less thermal expansion (good)

372
Q

What is a catch basin?

A

in the ground, below grates, to temporarily collect rainwater runoff

373
Q

Which is more efficient between monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels?

A

monocrystalline
they are more expensive

374
Q

What size clear space is needed in front of electrical equipment?

A

3’ in front of it
6’ high

375
Q

What does the number of poles in a switch refer to?

A

the number of separate circuits that the switch controls

376
Q

What does the throw count of a switch refer to?

A

how many positions (other than off) each switch has

377
Q

Does low or high frequency sound move through walls easier?

A

Low-frequency sound more easily moves through walls,
more readily bends around corners, builds up in corners of rooms

378
Q

What is the measure of absorption?

A

sabins

379
Q

What is the coefficient of utilization? (lighting related)

A

the fraction of light that reaches the work plane due to losses from absorption into surfaces

380
Q

What is the light loss factor?

A

the fraction of light that reaches the work plane due to losses from dirt and depreciation in the
lamp and fixture

381
Q

What’s the max slope for a green roof?

A

8” / 12”
66%

382
Q

Is hardwood from deciduous or coniferous?

A

deciduous

383
Q

Is softwood from deciduous or coniferous?

A

coniferous

384
Q

What does a flag on a welding symbol mean?

A

weld to be executed in the field

385
Q

What is a bearing type bolt?

A

tightened to snug fit

386
Q

What is a slip critical bolt

A

have large tension forces in the bolt

387
Q

What is a K series steel joist?

A

most common, spans up to 60 ft

388
Q

What is a LH series steel joist?

A

longer span

389
Q

What is a DLH series steel joist?

A

“deep longspan” spans the longest

390
Q

What are shear studs?

A

small vertical steel elements that help attach the steel pan to the concrete floor poured above it

391
Q

How long does it take concrete to set and cure?

A

set: 24 hours
cure: 28 days

392
Q

Where do bottom bars go in concrete?

A

midspan to resist bending

393
Q

Which two mortar joints are acceptable for outdoors?

A

vee and concave

394
Q

What is a good stone for underground?

A

granite

395
Q

Which stones do poorly in polluted air?

A

limestone and marble

396
Q

What does a higher number on the Mohs hardness scale mean?

A

harder stone

397
Q

Between aluminum, vinyl, fiberglass, and wood windows, which expand the most and least?

A

vinyl expands the most
wood expands the least

398
Q

Between aluminum, vinyl, fiberglass, and wood windows, which conduct the most and least heat?

A

Aluminum windows conduct the most heat (don’t want that)
fiberglass windows conduct the least heat.

399
Q

How are long slender columns most likely to fail?

A

buckling

400
Q

What is a standpipe?

A

like fire hydrants inside the building (often in stairwell) or on the building (often protruding from the exterior
wall). Made from cast iron, type K copper, or steel.

401
Q

What do 4 hour walls and 3 hour doors separate?

A

separate connected buildings

402
Q

What do 2 hour walls and 1.5 hour doors separate?

A

stairwells and elevator shafts from the rest of the building

403
Q

What do 1 hour walls and 1 hour doors separate?

A

different occupancies within a building

404
Q

What is net area?

A

is the tenant work area: everything except corridors, lobbies, elevators, mechanical rooms, shafts, wall thickness, bathrooms and stairs

405
Q

What is gross area?

A

everything

406
Q

What is net-to-gross?

A

a measure of efficiency that the owner cares deeply about

407
Q

What is rentable area?

A

everything except the elevators and stairs

408
Q

What is usable area?

A

everything but the lobbies, elevators, bathrooms and stairs

409
Q

What is the grossing factor?

A

rentable/usable

410
Q

Where is wind energy transfer from a shear wall?

A

foundation

411
Q

A building’s occupancy group can be found where?

A

Building code

412
Q

A 10% undervoltage would do what to fluorescent lighting?

A

a poor start time and reduced output.

413
Q

Where should interior fire partitions extend to?

A

Per IBC 708.4 Continuity, fire partitions shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to the fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly above, and shall be securely attached thereto.

414
Q

Where can you find fire ratings for walls in a building?

A

building code

415
Q

What’s the difference between detention basin and retention basin?

A

Retention basins hold water for an indefinite amount of time where detention basins retain water only during storms

416
Q

What is directly proportional to the amount of deflection?

A

moment of inertia

417
Q

How does stack ventilation?

A

In the stack effect warm inside air is pushed up and out of the building by air entering from the outside low points. The cooler outdoor air pushes the hot air up into the stack.

418
Q

What are the 3 common wood classifications? And what do they mean?

A

dressed, rough, and worked

Dressed lumber is surfaced by a planing machine to attain a smooth surface and uniform size.

Rough lumber is not dressed surfaced but sawed, edged, and trimmed to the extent that saw marks show in the wood on the four longitudinal surfaces of each piece for its overall length.

Worked lumber is dressed and also matched, shiplapped, or patterned.

419
Q

Which types of weatherstripping are most common? (5)

A

interlocking metal
felt
foam rubber
rolled vinyl
spring metal

420
Q

Which hold open doors close when the fire alarm is triggered?

A

Exist doors leading to the exit stair shaft on all floors

421
Q
A