Flashcards in PPL EXAM PREP Deck (248):
How long after a blood donation can you fly?
Unless what conditions have passed, can a private pilot take passengers up?
3 take offs and landings either dual or solo in previous 90 days
What is pilot in command responsible for?
Start, continuation, diversion and end of flight
Operation and safety of aircraft during flight
Safety of persons and cargo on plane
Conduct and safety of members of crew
What documents are required for flight within Australia?
Licence and medical of operating crew
What conditions can you carry a dog?
Carried in passenger cabin of aircraft
Placed on moisture absorbent mat
Restrained in such a way that prevent dog from moving off mat
During refuelling, the aircraft and ground fuelling equipment must be how far away?
5m sealed building
6m stationary aircraft
15m exposed public areas
15m unsealed building (mtow >5700)
9m unsealed building
An aircraft shall not be started or operated within?
5m sealed building
8m other aircraft
15m exposed public area
8 metres unsealed building
At what height can you fly over populous area?
What defines an 'overtaking' aircraft?
Approach from the rear on line forming angle less than 70 degrees
What instruments are required for flights under vfr?
Airspeed indicating system
Direct reading magnetic compass
What tolerances must be applied in class e or g airspace?
0-2000 agl plus/minus 1nm
2001-5000 agl plus/minus 2nm
5001-10000 agl plus/minus 4nm
100001/ FL 200 plus/minus 8nm
How much holding fuel do you need with an INTER.?
How much holding fuel do you need with a TEMPO?
How do you convert from east standard time to UTC?
Subtract 10 hours
Convert central standard time to UTC.
Minus 9.5 hours
Convert western standard time to UTC
Subtract 8 hours
What does CAVOK mean?
Visibility of 10km or more
Nil significant cloud (no cloud below 5000ft)
Nil significant weather
How often are routine reports (METAR) issued?
Hourly or half hourly
How often are special reports (SPECI) made?
When conditions fluctuate or below specified criteria
What is a weather report by pilots called?
When shall life jackets be equipped on aircraft?
Single engine-over water and distance from land greater than that which would allow the aircraft to reach land with engine inoperative
Multi engine-greater than 50nm
When shall life rafts be carried on board?
Flown over water at a distance greater than permitted distance (30mins normal cruise speed or 100nm whichever is less)
What shall the PIC ensure passengers are briefed on?
Use and adjustment of seat belts
Location of emergency exits
Use of floatation devices
Use of O2 where applicable
Stowage of hand luggage
Presence of survival equipment if applicable
When do you require an ELT?
Before undertaking a flight greater than 50nm from aerodrome of departure
What are the exceptions to requirements of ELT?
Flights within 50nm of aerodrome of departure
Aerial agriculture flight
If flight is for purpose of moving aircraft to place where ELT is to be installed, repaired or overhauled
Entry has been made in log book
What is CTAF.
Frequency which pilots at non towered aerodrome to make positional broadcasts
When should turns onto final be completed by?
Not less than 500ft above aerodrome elevation
What are the cruise levels for magnetic track?
0-179 degrees odd 1000s plus 500 (1500,3500,5500,7500)
180-359 degrees evens plus 500 (2500,4500,6500,8500)
In class d, what is distance from cloud horizontal and vertically?
1000ft above 500ft below
How long is a class 1 medical valid for?
How long is a class 2 medical valid for?
4 years (less than 40)
2 years (greater than 40)
A pilot must not fly if consumption of drugs or alcohol impairs capacity to act as PIC, true or false?
What is the permitted BAC.
How long do you need to wait to fly after gastro?
At least 72 hours
What are some symptoms of hypoxia?
Tingling cyanosis (blue) fingers, toes, lips
Poor muscle control
What is the useful consciousness for pilot and person sitting quietly at 20000, 25000 and 30000ft?
Ft. Pilot. Sitting
20000. 10 mins. 20 mins
25000. 3mins. 5 mins
30000. 1mins. 3mins
What will happen to carbon monoxide detector in presence of carbon monoxide?
It will turn black.
At what g force will a pilot usually grey out?
At what g force will you black out?
How long should a pilot not fly for after scuba diving without decompression stops?
How long should a pilot wait for after scuba diving less than. 4 hours with decompression stops?
How long should a pilot wait foR after scuba diving for more than 4 hours with decompression stops?
What is the recommended db level for wearing hearing protection?
What is a threat?
Situation or event that has potential to negatively impact on safety of flight or any influence that promotes opportunity for pilot error
Occurs outside influence of crew
Anticipate, unexpected, latent, internal or external
Eg weather, traffic, weight and balance, high terraign, density altitude, runway length
What are errors?
Flight crew actions or inactions that lead to deviation from crew or organisation intentions or expectations, reduce safety margins and increase probability of adverse operations on ground or inflight.
Can be handling, procedural or communicational
What are your priorities in survival situation?
What is the chord line?
Straight line between leading edge and trailing edge.
What is the relative airflow?
Opposite to direct of path or aircraft
What is the angle of attack?
Angle between chord line and relative airflow
What is chamber?
Curvature of aerofoil
What does increasing the camber of aerofoil do?
Cause airflow over it to accelerate more generating more lift at same angle of attack
What happens as angle of attack increases?
Airflow becomes turbulent
Centre of pressure moves forward
What happens as angle of attack goes past stall angle?
Centre of pressure moves rearwards
Pitch couple increases
What is the tendency of banking during climb?
Over banking during climb due to increase speed and angle of attack on outer wing
What is the tendency of bank in descent?
Under bank in descent due to increased inner wing angle of attack
What is adverse aileron yaw and what causes it?
Tendency of aircraft to yaw out of turn
Caused by induced drag on down going aileron
How is adverse yaw minimised?
Fries ailerons (offset hinges)
Differential ailerons (up going aileron goes higher than down going)
What is the load factor formulas?
Lift divided by weight
1/cos bank angle
What is the stall speed banked formula?
Stall speed / square root cos bank angle
What happens in a spin?
Down going wing stalls first as has larger angle of attack
Up going wing not completely stalled
Rolls due to lift plus secondary affect of yaw
How do we get true airspeed?
IAS corrected for instrument and pressure error gives CAS
CAS correct for compressibility error give EAS
EAS corrected for density error gives TAS
What is a rate one turn?
180 degrees in 1 minute
360 degrees in 2 minutes
3 degrees per second
What is the formula for angle of bank?
10% speed plus 7 = angle of bank (degrees)
What will increasing weight have on radius and rate of turn?
Increase weight will increase lift, TAS and radius of turn but decrease rate of turn
What will decreasing TAS have on radius and rate of turn?
Decrease TAS will decrease radius of turn and increase rate of turn
What affect will doubling the TAS have on radius of turn?
4times turn radius
What will increase angle of bank have on radius and rate of turn?
Increase angle of bank will decrease radius of turn and increase rate of turn
What affect will decreasing angle of bank have on radius and rate of turn?
Decreasing angle of bank will increase radius of turn and decrease rate of turn
What is maximum range?
Speed which produces minimum drag
Least power required for greatest TAS
What affect will head wing have on glide?
Decrease glide distance, no change to endurance
What affect will tail wind have on glide range?
Increase range, no change to endurance
What is maximum endurance?
Minimum power fuel consumption minimum
Along which axis is longitudinal stability?
Lateral axis (pitch)
Along which axis is lateral stability?
Longitudinal axis ( roll)
Along which axis is directional stability?
Normal axis (yaw)
Forward or rear centre of gravity will increase stability?
How is lateral stability increased?
Sweep back wings
When is wake turbulence greatest?
Heavy aircraft, slow with gear and flaps up
What is the connecting rod?
Forms a link between piston and cylinder
What is a crank shaft?
Changes straight line motion of piston into rotary turning motion required for prop
What is a camshaft?
Provides timing sequence for intake and exhaust valves
What are the cycles of combustion?
Intake -piston down drawing in air/fuel mixture
Compression -piston up compressing air/fuel
Combustion-spark ignites mixture and pressure forces piston down
Exhaust-piston forced up barrel expelling spent gas
In the 4 stroke cycle, how man revs of he crank shaft are produced?
What is the stichcometric ratio?
15 parts air to 1 part fuel
What affect does slightly rich mixture have on engine?
No great effect on power, excess fuel aids in cooling engine
What effect does slightly lean mixture have in power and engine?
Reduces power as not all air used and engine temperature increases
What happens to engine performance as altitude and temperature increase?
Density decreases resulting in lower engine performance
What is detonation and its symptoms?
Spontaneous explosive combustion
Caused by high CHT, expired fuel and incorrect (low) fuel grade.
Symptoms include high and increasing CHT, significant power loss, engine vibrating and pinging sound in engine
How do you rectify detonation?
Mixture rich, reduce power
What is pre ignition and its symptoms?
Fuel air mixture ignites before spark plugs fire
Caused by hot spots in cylinder (lead deposits) and high power with lean mixture
Symptoms include rough running, back firing and high CHT
How do you rectify pre ignition?
Mixture rich, reduce power
What type of engines is AVGAS used in?
What colour is 100/130 AVGAS?
What colour is 100LL AVGAS?
What engines is AVTUR used in?
What colour is AVTUR?
What colour is MOGAS?
What would occur if there was no fuel vent?
Fuel would be unable to enter lines
What does the fuel vent allow?
Air to flow into tank to replace fuel used
When is carburettor ice likely to occur?
OAT is less than 20 degrees and humidity approx 80%
What is impact ice?
Temperature of components falls below zero and supercooled water droplets freeze on impact with these surfaces
What is evaporation ice?
As temperature decreases due to vaporisation of fuel, if there is water vapour in air, it will freeze to form ice
What is throttle ice?
When operating at part throttle, as air accelerates over partially closed butterfly valve, it's accelerated causing pressure drop and temp drop encourages ice to form
What does carby heat do?
Prevents and/or removes carby ice
Directs hot unfiltered air from exhaust
What is secondary effect if carby heat?
alternate air in emergency
Why should prolonged use of carby heat be avoided?
Unfiltered air into engine
Reduction of power
What is the main disadvantage of fuel injection system?
Prone to vapour lock
What is the casa maximum and minimum amount of oil?
What is the maximum and minimum pressure for oil?
Where does the sum of all lifting forces act through?
Centre of pressure
What is propeller torque?
Acts opposite motion of propeller blades
What is engine torque?
Acts to overcome propeller torque and allows prop to rotate
What happens when engine and propeller torque are equal?
RPM is constant
What happens when engine torque is greater than prop torque?
RPM will increase
What happens when engine torque is less then prop torque?
At constant RPM, what happens to angle of attack as TAS increase?
Angle of attack decreases
At constant RPM, what happens to angle of attack as TAS decreases?
Angle of attack increases
At constant TAS, what happens to angle of attack on the prop as RPM increases?
Angle of attack on prop increases
At constant TAS, what happens to angle of attack in prop as RPM decreases?
Angle of attack on prop decreases
What is aerodynamic twisting moment?
Force attempts to twist blades towards coarse pitch
What is centrifugal moment?
Natural tendency for rotating body to align with plane of rotation, attempt to twist to fine pitch.
Stronger than ATM
What does the governor do?
Maintains constant prop speed and therefore constant RPM. Done by changing blade angle through speeder springs and flywheels
What does the McCauley system do?
Relies on oil pressure to move props to coarse pitch. Assisted by spring to return prop to fine. Loss in oil pressure will result in fine pitch stop
What does the Hartzell system do?
Relies on oil pressure to move prop to fine pitch. Counter weight to move to coarse pitch. Loss in oil pressure cause the coarse pitch stop.
What happens if the speeder spring fails?
Fly weights fling outward, governor sense overspend and blades coarsen. Result large RPM drop
Why is battery kept well ventilated?
To prevent buildup of hydrogen gas.
What does the centre zero amenter do?
Measures current to and from battery
What does the left zero ammeter do?
Measures alternator output?
What does a positive output on centre zero ammeter mean?
Current into battery is charge, normal with engine running
What does a negative output mean on centre zero ammeter mean?
Current out of battery is discharge, normal when engine is not running
What does excessive positive output on centre zero ammeter mean?
Battery is not holding charge
What does excessive negative output mean on centre zero ammeter?
Alternator has failed.
How long does standby battery supply power for?
Approximately 30 mins to essential bus
What is a fuse?
Thin wire that melts if current too high.
What is a circuit breaker?
Spring to separate line if too much current sensed. Once cooled you can reset but not more than once
If left magneto is engaged, what is happening.
Left is engaged, right is earthed
Which instruments run off vacuum driven gyro?
AH and DG
What instruments run off electric driven gyro?
If the static tube is blocked, what happens to VSI, ALT and ASI on climb?
VSI - 0
ALT - under read, constant
ASI - under read
If the static tube is blocked, what will happen to VSI, ALT and ASI on descend?
VSI - 0
ALT - over read, constant
ASI - over read
If QNH is set as 1017 when it is actually 1005, at 3500 what is actually height?
3500+360=3860ft actual height
What are the compass errors?
Apparent turn to South when accelerating (east or west heading)
Apparent turn to North when decelerating (east or west heading)
Doesn't occur when heading is north or south
What are the turning errors?
Overshoot north by 30 degrees
Undershoot south by 30 degrees
Maximum when turning north and south headings
Minimum when East or west headings.
What direction are all circuit patterns unless otherwise specified by ATC or ersa?
Left hand circuits
If departing from non towered aerodrome, contrary to circuit direction when should turns be commenced?
1500ft AGL or 3nm
An aircraft must not commence takeoff until preceding aircraft has?
Crossed upwind end of runway
If runway longer 1800m, airborne and 1800m ahead
If both <2000kg, preceding airborne and 600m ahead
Vacated and taxing away
Crossed or stopped short runway
An aircraft must not continue approach to land until?
Preceding aircraft us airborne and commenced turn and/or beyond point runway which landing aircraft could land, roll and manoeuvre safely.
Preceding aircraft vacated and taxing away
Preceding aircraft crossed or stopped short
What is the minimum height for aerobatics?
3000ft above heighest obstruction with radius of 600m
If flying outside Australia, what additional documentation do you require?
Certificate of registration
Certificate of airworthiness
List of names, placed of embarkation and destination for passengers
What separation will ATC provide for wake turbulence?
Parallel runways less than 760m apart and when aircraft behind and same level or 1000m below
How many fire extinguishers do we need and how far away?
2 within 15m but not less than 6m
Can fire extinguishers be carried on refuelling equipment?
Yes only if:
Quick release brackets
Available either side
As as far as practicable from fuelling points
What does white cone with red stripe mean?
What does yellow cone with red stripe mean?
What does yellow cone mean?
What does blue cone mean?
Helicopter manuerving area
What does white gable marker mean?
Edge of runway
What does yellow gable marker mean?
Used along taxiway
What classes of airspace is VMC in?
C/E, D and G
When should you plan to land before last light?
0-2000ft agl plus/minus 1nm
2001-5000 plus/minus 2nm
5001/10000 plus/minus 4
What is QNH?
Pressure at mean sea level, pressure below 10000ft
What do you use if local QNH is unknown?
Area forecast QNH, valid for 3 hours
When asked by the ATC to change level, when must this be commenced by and what rate?
Commenced no later than a minute after being asked
No less than 500ft/minute but last 1000 must be at 500ft/minute
When are you required to make a transmission on CTAF?
Prior to 10nm inbound
Before joining circuit
In vicinity of aerodrome
What must you be/done to gain a PPL.
17 years old
Hold flight radio ops licence
Pass in ppl theory
Pass in ppl flight test
40 hours, 5pic, 5 cross country 2IF
one flight greater 150nm 1 full stop and 1 touch and go from 2 or more aerodromes
How long before needing to see a dame can ppl be sick?
When are you required to check fuel?
Before commenced of each days flight and immediately after refuelling
When are seat belts required to be worn?
Take offs and landings
Less than 1000ft
By one pilot all times
What is the maximum weight of cargo that can be placed on seat?
2 children may occupy one seat if?
Combined weight less than 77
Seated side by side and lapstrap only
From what heights is temperature assumed to be constant -56.7
36090 to 65617
At what heights is temp assumed to rise by 1degree per 1000ft?
What heights are polar and tropical tropopause?
25000 and 60000 ft
At 5000ft AMSL, what is approximate hPa?
What does more dense air do?
Generates more lift at lower speed
What is convection?
Air that is heated at earth surface which will expand becoming less dense carrying best higher into atmosphere
What is advection?
Horizontal motion of air, aka wind
What is sea breeze?
Hot surface air rises and cool air from sea flows towards land in place of warmed air. Greatest mid arvo
What is land breeze?
Warm air rises from water, at night land cools quicker.
What is katabatic wind?
Cool parcel of air sinks down mountain slope, forms at night, strongest at dawn. Forms on high plateau sloping down terraign in clear skies and relative warm surrounding air.
What is anabatic winds?
Wind blowing up sloping terrain during arvo. Mainly in westward facing slopes
What is fohn wind?
Warmer drier sur on lee side of mountain. High moist air rising up mountain range with high dew point temperature.
What are low level jet streams?
High pressure system circulating anti clockwise
Crowds isobars together, meaning high wind speed.
Greatest west of divining range in winter at dawn
From south over plain
What conditions are associated with stable?
High pressure system
Cloud at great heights
What conditions are associated with unstable?
Low pressure system
Showery rain if precipitation
Good visibility between showers
Which clouds are rain bearing clouds?
Cumulonimbus, ice risk, turbulence in and below
What is fog?
Visibility below 1000m
Nil turbulence or ice
What is mist?
Visibility not below 1000m
Humidity approx 95%
Hw far away can you experience severe changes in wind speed and direction in thunderstorm?
What is frontal turbulence and how is it marked on synoptic chart?
Result of winds hear
Which direction does global circulation move in summer?
Which direction does global circulation move in winter?
What are isobars?
Lines at join equal pressure
Indicates pressure fields
What is a ridge?
High pressure finger
Wind turns to left
What is a trough?
Low pressure finger
Wind turns to right
What is a col?
Area between two highs and two lows
Wind light and variable
What do closely spaced isobars mean?
What does well spaced isobars mean?
Which direction do pressure gradient turn?
Right angle to isobar
When flying towards high pressure system, which direction will wind be?
When flying towards a low, which direction. Will wind be from?
Over land, surface winds drop by how much?
2/3 and veers 30 degrees
Over sea surface winds drop by how much?
By 1/3 and veers 10 degrees
What is rime ice and what clouds will it form in?
Frail and brittle ice formed when supercooled droplets collide with leading edge.
Formed in altostratus and altocumulus
What effect does rime ice have on performance?
Increase drag requiring greater angle of attack
What is clear ice and what clouds and temps does it form?
Freezing rain spread across taking longer to freeze.
5 to -15 degrees
Forms in thick altostratus and altocumulus clouds
What affect does hoar frost have on aircraft?
Increase drafts decrease stall angle of attack and increase stall speed
What is a cold front marked by on synoptic chart?
Triangle towards direction of travel
What conditions may accompany cold front?
Thunderstorm, sever turbulence and wind shear
What conditions may accompany a warm front?
Rain and snow
What is the cloud height in area forecast?
Above mean sea level
What is low level jet stream and what direction is wind from?
High pressure system, circulating anti clockwise
What is Va?
Manoeuvring speed, speeds above with full elevator deflection may cause airframe damage.
What is Vb?
Turbulence penetration speed, loads imposed vertical gusts at 3000 ft/min
What is formula for pressure height?
PH = elevation + (1013-QNH)x30
What is ISA temperature?
15 - (ph x 2 / 1000)
What is density height?
DH = PH + (ISA deviation x 120)
What are ambient conditions?
Atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind at aerodrome with in period 15 mins preceding takeoff
What is take off safety speed?
Not less than 1.2VS1
Gives climb performance 6% gear down out of ground effect
What is approach speed?
Not less than 1.3 Vso
What does an increased temperature do to performance?
Increased Temp decreases take off performance
What does a decrease in QNH do to take off performance?
Decrease in QNH decreases take off performance
What does an increase in elevation do to take off performance?
Decreases take off performance
What does an increase in humidity do to take off performance?
Decrease take off performance
What does an overweight aircraft do to stall speed, climb performance and take off distance?
Increase stall speed
Poorer climb performance
Increase tasked off distance
A 1485 m long runway with tree 200m south, 22m tall. Is this an obstacle, if so how far do we need to move it?
200/20 + 30 = 40
As 40>0 it is inside the splay.
22m/20 = 10
As 10<12 we are in danger of hitting tree.
Must move it by 40m
1minute of latitude is equal to now many nm?
1 degree of latitude is equal to how many nm?
All charts are in reference to what? True or magnetic?
True north, we need to convert to magnetic
What is fixed reserve?
Fixed number of gallons or litres to be added for flight to be conducted safely
What is variable reserve?
Fixed percentage, usually 15% fuel to be increased by
How do we find QNH at aerodrome with known elevation?
Set elevation in altimeter and check subscale
What are levels measured from local QNH?
What are levels measured from 1013 datum?
What is the highest altitude we can fly at?
What is the lowest flight level?
How do you calculate time?
Distance divided by ground speed times by 60
How do you calculate rate of climb?
Climb distance divided by time
What is track error formula?
60 divided by distance travelled x distance off track
What is CA formula?
60 divided by distance to go x distance off track
What is the formula for heading to intercept?
TE + CA
What are the errors for NDB?
Co channel interference
What are VOR errors?
Ground station error
With 1013 set on subscale an altimeter will indicate?
Imaginary plane in aircraft which measures of arm are taken is called?
With regards to power setting what is true in regards to mixture and power?
Highest airspeed is attained with best power setting