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Flashcards in Practical Exam 1 Deck (185)
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1

power switch

provides electrical power to the microscope

2

ocular (eyepiece)

contains a 10x magnification lens

3

diopter adjustment ring

to compensate for differences in acuity between eyes

4

objectives

lenses of varying magnification (4x, 10x, 20x, 40x, 100x). The magnification values are usually engraved on the objective

5

stage

platform upon which the slide is positioned for focusing

6

slide holder

holds slide in place for x-y movement around stage

7

X-Y axis knobs

move slide holder vertically or horizontally around stage

8

coarse focus

large knobs on both sides of the microscope base that allow for initial focusing of the object to be viewed

9

fine focus

small knobs on both sides of the microscope base that allow for refinement of detail in focusing

10

condenser

a lens just under the stage and the specimen that concentrates the light under the specimen

11

aperture iris diaphragm

it controls the amount of light passing through the specimen, which therefore helps control the contrast and resolution of the image seen

12

condenser centering screws

to adjust positioning of the condenser lens

13

field iris diaphragm ring

controls how much of the original light source gets sent to the condenser

14

light intensity knob

controls the intensity (voltage) of light sent through the field of iris diaphragm

15

magnification

the number of times an image's size is enlarged

16

total magnification with a 4x objective lens

40x (10x ocular lens and 4x objective lens)

17

total magnification with a 10x objective lens

100x (10x ocular lens and 10x objective lens)

18

total magnification with a 40x objective lens

400x (10x ocular lens and 40x objective lens)

19

total magnification with a 100x objective lens

1000x (10x ocular lens and 100x objective lens)

20

resolution

ability to separate two distinct structures under a microscope

21

tissue

cluster of cells that are similar in structure and function

22

4 major tissues in the body

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve (neural)

23

common characteristics of epithelial tissue

composition: sheets of cells that line and cover body surfaces, both internally and externally
major functions: protection of surfaces, secretion or excretion of biochemical substances or absorption of material
epithelial cells are anchored to underlying tissues by means of a basement membrane (aka basal lamina) , a glue-like material secreted by the base layer of epithelial cells. It's basically a non-living network of fibers that cements the epithelial cells to the underlying connective tissue

24

microvilli

finger-like projections of the epithelial cells that serve to increase the surface area to increase absorption, secretion, or excretion. when the apical surface is covered with microvilli it is often regerred to as the brush border. the intestines is one place you'll see lots of microvilli because lots of absorption needs to take place

25

cilia

long hair-like structures that beat in a rhythmic fashion to help move materials across the epithelial cell's surface. you'll see cilia oin the lungs

26

keratin

a protective waterproof material that is produced in the epithelial cells found in skin

27

simple

one layer

28

stratified

two or more layers

29

squamous

very thin; but from a different angle they look like fried eggs

30

cuboidal

cube-shaped; nuclei arranged in a single row in the center