practice questions Flashcards Preview

Phys 3 final > practice questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in practice questions Deck (68):
1

t/f: the renal excretion rate for a solute can never exceed the filtered load

false-excretion more than filtered load is secreting

2

what hormone is produced by the kidneys in response to SNS stimulation

renin- it regulates RBF

3

what would increase GFR but decrease renal blood flow

constriction of efferent arterioles

4

what can the kidney produce from alanine, glycerol, and lactate

glucose

5

what hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates the making of RBCs

erythropoietin

6

what percentage of the resting cardiac output does the kidney receive

25%

7

at rest, the GFR averages what quantity of plasma filtrate

125 mL/min

8

the average urine production in a day is equal to what

1500 mL/day

9

why does the capillary hydrostatic pressure stay constant along the length of the glomerular capillary

due to high resistance, efferent arterioles

10

in the kidney, where does reabsorption take place

peritubular capillaries

11

t/f: the majority of nephrons are capable of concentrating the urine

false- because JM nephrons do this and they only make up 15% of all nephrons

12

in the process of micturition, what sphincter is under voluntary control, allowing us to decide when to urinate

external urethral sphincter

13

which causes contraction of the detrusor muscles and relaxation of the internal sphincters, giving us the urge to urinate

stimulation of the PNS

14

on average, what percent of body weight is water

60%

15

on average, what percent of body weight is extracellular fluid

20%

16

if you dehydrate and lose 2 liters of fluid, which kind of fluid shift would you expect

some shift from ICF to ECF- high NaCl intake could do this as well

17

what marker is best suited to measure total body water

isotropic water- titrated water is another way

18

which fluid loss would cause only a loss in ECF volume, no change in osmolarity, and no shift in volume between ICF and ECF

diarrhea

19

clearance of what injected substance is equal to the GFR

inulin

20

which substance would have the highest clearance? *write in formula*

para aminohippuric acid- anything that is filtered AND secreted will be highest

21

at normal blood levels, what statement regarding the renal handling of glucose is true

freely filtered and all reabsorbed

22

what is the physiologic significant figure of substance x with a clearance ratio equal to 1

the clearance of x is equal to GFR

23

what is the most important function of the kidney

reabsorption of Na

24

what percent of Na is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule

66%

25

when would some filtered glucose spill into the urine

plasma concentration of glucose exceeds 200 mg/dL

26

in the kidney, what is a physiologic function of urea

helps create osmotic gradient important in concentrating urine

27

what is located on the basolateral side of the tubular cell (luminal side) that drives reabsorption of most solutes in the proximal tubule

Na/K ATPase

28

the TAL has what effect on the tubular fluid

dilutes it

29

what tubular cell in the late distal tubule is responsible for K secretion

principal cell- also found in the collecting duct

30

what effect does insulin have in intracellular K concentration

increase- glucose stimulates K pump

31

what receptors mediate ADH effect to insert aquaporin 2 (water channel making the collecting duct permeable to water, which allows reabsorption of water)

V2

32

normal arterial pH is equal to what

7.4

33

hyperventilation is cause of what

respiratory alkalosis

34

what is an example of a volatile acid

CO2

35

what is a normal compensation to metabolic acidosis

increase ventilation

36

if renal perfusion pressure increases from 100 mmHg to 150 mmHg, what statement would be true

both GFR and renal blood flow would stay constant- because it can be kept constant between 80-200

37

what physically prevents plasma proteins from entering Bowman's capsule

basement membrane- negative charges are an additional barrier

38

what auto regulation of renal blood flow and GFR involved constriction or dilation of what vessels

afferent arterioles- only place auto regulation occurs

39

the clearance of PAH is equal to what

renal plasma flow

40

in mice, knocking out the receptor for what substance (blocks tubuloglomerular feedback) is important in auto regulation of both renal blood flow and GFR

A1 receptor for adenosine

41

what would increase both GFR and renal blood flows

dilation of afferent arterioles

42

normal plasma osmolality of the ECF would be equal to what

300 mOsm/L

43

reabsorption by the kidney averages what quantity of tubular fluid/day

178.5 L/day

44

what effect does the efferent arterioles have on the glomerular capillary filtration pressure

keeps it constant along its length

45

in the kidney, where does all filtration take place

glomerular capillaries

46

what nephrons are capable of concentrating the urine

juxtamedullary

47

urea transporters in the inner medullary collecting ducts are stimulated by what

ADH

48

what causes relaxation of the detrusor muscle and contraction of the internal sphincters, allowing the bladder to fill

stimulation of the SNS

49

what contributes most to plasma osmolarity

plasma Na

50

if you experience a high-water intake, what kind of fluid shift would you expect

shift from ECF to ICF, decrease in osmolarity

51

what marker is best suited to measure plasma volume using indicator dilution

radioactive albumen

52

which would cause a hyposmotic volume contraction associated with increase water loss > NaCl loss resulting in a decrease in ECF volume, increase in osmolarity, resulting in a shift in volume from ICF to ECF? There is no change in hemocrit.

dehydration (sweating)

53

what best describes renal handling of albumen in the blood

not filtered and not secreted

54

what is the physiologic significance of substance x with a clearance ratio >1

substance x is both filtered and secreted

55

why is the most important function of the kidney reabsorption of Na

Na reabsorption drives virtually all other solute reabsorption

56

the majority of solute is reabsorbed in what portion of the nephron

proximal tubule

57

what is the Tm for filtered glucose reached

plasma concentration of glucose first exceeds 350 mg/dL

58

what is located on the luminal (apical) side of the tubular cell in the TAL that reabsorbs about 25% of the filtered Na

Na/K Cl cotransporter

59

what tubular cell in the late distal tubule is responsible for K reabsorption

a-intercalated cell

60

what effect does a deficiency of insulin have on blood K concentration

hyperkalemia

61

what effect does ADH have on the collecting duct

increased permeability to water

62

a patient who is excessively vomiting is likely to develop what condition

metabolic alkalosis

63

to compensate for metabolic alkalosis, what is an appropriate compensatory response

decreased ventilation

64

what is an example of a fixed acid produced by the breakdown of phospholipids

phosphoric acid

65

a patient has an arterial pH of 7.6, HCO3= 28 mEg/L, and arterial PCO2=40 mmHg. this is consistent with what

metabolic alkalosis

66

in addition to the basement membrane associated with the glomerular capillary filtration barrier, what else helps exclude high molecular weight proteins from entering Bowman's space

negatively charged glycoproteins

67

renal plasma flow is equal to what

clearance of PAH

68

when the pK=pH, what is true

HA=A