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Flashcards in Practice Test 5 Problems Deck (18):
1

As described in the passage, the ability of Polynesian sailors to navigate is most sim- ilar to
(A) the ability of owls to see very small movements of their prey in very dim light (B) the ability of snakes to detect their sur- roundings primarily through smell and taste (C) the ability of cats to detect nearby moving objects with their whiskers (D) the ability of dolphins to sense distant fixed objects by detecting sound waves that are reflected by those objects (E) the ability of bees to locate food sources in terms of their relationship to the sun’s position

D The Polynesian system of navigation, as described in the third paragraph, was based on the
CHAPTER 14 / PRACTICE PSAT 5 551
interpretation of waves that were reflected from or deflected by islands and reefs that were far away. This is most analogous to the ability of dolphins to interpret sound waves that bounce off distant objects.

2

The author refers to Michael Dukakis in line 63 primarily because he
(A) employed professional speechwriters (B) lost an election (C) used humor to good effect (D) wrote his own speeches (E) overcame his fear of public speaking

22. B The previous sentence stated that humor has a contagious appeal that can win... elections (lines 60–61). When the author then asks whether we can recall a single joke by Walter Mondale or Michael Dukakis, he is suggesting that we probably can’t because they didn’t use humor effectively and so lost their elections.

3

If m¼4nþ5 and p¼3nþ6, which of the following expresses n in terms of m and p? (A) mþ2p 2 3 (B) m 2 pþ1 (C) 3m 2 2pþ4 (D) 4mþpþ1 (E) 2m 2 5p

10. B One way to solve this is to plug in a simple value for n, like 4. Then w¼4(4)þ5¼21 and z¼3(4)þ6¼18. The question asks for an expres- sion that equals n, so look for 4 in the choices when you plug in w¼21 and z¼18. The only choice that gives you 4 is (B). (Chapter 9 Lesson 6: Inequalities, Absolute Values, and Plugging In)

4

Point Z is at the tip of the minute hand of a classroom clock, while point W is at the tip of the hour hand. The minute hand of the clock, which is 4 inches long, is twice as long as the hour hand. During the three hours from noon until 3 p.m., how much further does point Z travel than does point W?
(A)
p (B) 4 p (C) 15 p (D) 23 p (E) 24 p

19. D Since the minute hand is 4 inches long and twice as long as the hour hand, the hour hand must be 2 inches long. First calculate the distance each of the two hands travels in one full rotation. This distance is the circumference of a circle with the hand as a radius. Circumference of minute hand: C¼2 p r¼2 p (4)¼8 p Circumference of hour hand: C¼2 p r¼2 p (2)¼4 p Next, find out how many full rotations each hand completes.
Minute hand: Between noon and 3 p.m., the minute hand makes three full rotations around the clock. This means it covers a total of 3(8 p )¼24 p inches.
Hour hand: Between noon and 3 p.m., the hour hand moves just 908 from the 12 to the 3, or 1 4 of the circumference: 1 4(4 p )¼ p inches.
The difference is 24 p
2
p
¼23 p
inches.
(Chapter 11 Lesson 8: Circles)

5

For over 20 years, NBC Nightly News anchor- man Tom Brokaw, well known for his ------ and ------, provided keen insight and a calming voice to the American people.
(A) autonomy..tranquility (B) acumen..equanimity (C) sagacity..irascibility (D) affluence..intemperance (E) impetuosity..steadfastnes

B The second clause of the sentence provides us with the definitions for the missing words. The first word should mean keen insight, while the second word should mean calming force. autonomy¼ independence; tranquil¼peaceful; acumen¼keen- ness of insight; equanimity¼even-temperedness, calmness; sagacity¼wisdom; irascible¼easily angered; affluence¼wealth; intemperance¼lack of control; impetuosity¼impulsiveness; steadfast ¼ unwavering, steady

6

Which of the following best describes the relationship between Crookes and Ro ¨ntgen as it is described in the passage?
(A) They each discovered x-rays independently. (B) Ro ¨ntgen explained the cause of a phenomenon that Crookes had investigated. (C) Ro ¨ntgen and Crookes collaborated to develop instruments that were instru- mental to the discovery of x-rays. (D) Crookes instructed Ro ¨ntgen in the use of x-rays. (E) They had an adversarial relationship.

. B The passage states that Crookes unsuccess- fully sought the cause of the repeated and unaccounta- ble fogging of photographic plates (lines 8–10) and that Ro ¨ntgen discovered the source of this radiation and called it x-rays. Therefore, Ro ¨ntgen explained the cause of a phenomenon that Crookes had investigated

7

The author of Passage 1 regards the “argu- ment” summarized in lines 41–43 as
(A) a logical fallacy (B) a misrepresentation of experimental evidence (C) an unfair characterization (D) an accurate summary of positions (E) a necessary concession

C The author of Passage 1 believes that this argument, which characterizes advocates of inor- ganic fertilizers as people who care only about profits (line 43), is unjust. He counters this con- ception with an example of how a concern for humanity could lead to an advocacy of inorganic fertilizer.

8

If x represents a nonnegative number, which of the following must be true? I. x , x2 , x3 II. x2 . 0 III. xþx2þx3 0 (A) None (B) I only (C) III only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III

24. C You are told that x represents a nonnegative number, which means it can be 0, a fraction less than 1, 1, or a number larger than 1. I. x , x2 , x3 not true if 0 x , 1 II. x2 . 0 not true if x ¼ 0 III. xþx2 þx3 0 always true
Don’t forget that x can be 0 in this problem, and don’t forget that it can be a fraction less than 1. If you do, you might pick either (D) or (E). (Chapter 10 Lesson 3: Numerical Reasoning Prob- lems)

9

38 2, 4, 2,... After the second term in the sequence above, each term is found by dividing the preceding term by the term before that. For example, the third term is equal to 4 4 2¼2. What is the value of the thirty-fourth term of this sequence?

2 or 0.5 Write out the first 6 to 8 terms: Third term: 4 4 2 ¼ 2 Fourth term: 2 4 4 ¼ 1=2 Fifth term: 1=2 4 2 ¼ 1=4 Sixth term: 1=4 4 1=2 ¼ 1=2 Seventh term: 1=2 4 1=4 ¼ 2 Eighth term: 2 4 1=2 ¼ 4 The first 8 terms: 2, 4, 2, 1 2, 1 4, 1 2, 2, 4 The pattern is 2, 4, 2, 1 2, 1 4, 1 2, and it repeats every 6 terms. To find the thirty-fourth term of the sequence, find how many times the pattern occurs in 34 terms. 34 4 6¼5 with remainder 4. This means that the pattern repeats 5 full times with four terms left over. The term at the end of the fifth repetition is 1 2. The fourth term after that is also 1 2, the fourth term of the repeating pattern. (Chapter 10 Lesson 7: Sequences)

10

38 2, 4, 2,... After the second term in the sequence above, each term is found by dividing the preceding term by the term before that. For example, the third term is equal to 4 4 2¼2. What is the value of the thirty-fourth term of this sequence?

4. C The past participle of to break is broken, not broke. (Chapter 13 Lesson 13: Irregular Verbs)

11

If I was going to run in the marathon this Saturday, I’d make sure to eat plenty of carbohydrates on Friday night.
(A) If I was going to run in the marathon this Saturday (B) Was I to run in the marathon this Saturday (C) If this Saturday I was going to run in the marathon (D) If this Saturday I were going to be running in the marathon (E) If I were going to run in the marathon this Saturday

5. E The phrase I was is in the wrong mood. It should be in the subjunctive mood: I were. (Chapter 13 Lesson 14: The Subjunctive Mood)

12

Henry VIII was a powerful and ruthless ruler who changed the relationship between the church and the state, in order to gain more power for his kingdom.
(A) who changed the relationship between the church and the state, in order to gain more power for his kingdom (B) that changed the relationship between the church and the state, in order to gain more power for his kingdom (C) changing the relationship between the church and the state in order to gain more powerful kingdom (D) who changed the relationship between the church and the state in order to gain more power for his kingdom (E) that changed the relationship between the church and the state, in order to gain more power for his kingdom

6. A This sentence is correct as written.

13

The American Dental Association rec- ommends that everyone should floss their teeth once a day to remove plaque from all tooth surfaces.
(A) should floss their teeth once a day to remove (B) floss their teeth once a day to remove plaque (C) should floss their teeth once a day for removing plaque (D) should floss his or her teeth once a day to remove plaque (E) flosses his or her teeth once a day for removing plaque

D Because everyone is singular, the pronoun their is not correct. It should instead be his or her. (Chapter 13 Lesson 5: Pronoun Agreement)

14

After Colonel Peters reached the shore and shed his soaking wet army gear, he was able to run quickly down the beach because he was much more light.
(A) After Colonel Peters reached the shore and shed his soaking wet army gear, he was able to run quickly down the beach because he was much more light. (B) After Colonel Peters reached the shore and shed his soaking wet army gear, he was able to run down the beach because he was much lighter. (C) Upon reaching the shore, Colonel Peters shed his soaking wet army gear, and he was able to run down the beach because he was much lighter. (D) After Colonel Peters reached the shore, he shed his soaking wet army gear, he was able to run down the beach because he was much lighter. (E) After Colonel Peters reached the shore and shed his soaking wet army gear, he was able to run quickly down the beach because he was much lighter

13. B The comparative adjective more light is incorrect and should be replaced with lighter. (Chapter 13 Lesson 4: Comparison Errors) (Chapter 13 Lesson 12: Other Problems with Modifiers

15

It is impossible to predict what affect A
the
death of the Prime Minister will have on
the nation’s economic relationship with its B neighbors, but many believe C that new leadership will revitalize D trade negotiations. No error E

A To affect means to influence, and an effect is a result or a consequence. This is a diction error, and affect should be replaced by effect. (Chapter 13 Lesson 11: Diction Errors)

16

The argument between A
my younger brother
and I B
seemed insignificant when we C
heard
that our father had had D
a heart attack and
was in the hospital. No error E

B The two clauses must be parallel: has been so friendly would make this clause parallel to the first. (Chapter 13 Lesson 3: Parallelism)

17

Which of the following provides the most logical ordering of the sentences in para- graph 2?
(A) 6, 8, 5, 7 (B) 7, 5, 8, 6 (C) 7, 6, 5, 8 (D) 8, 5, 7, 6 (E) 5, 8, 6, 7

A Sentence 6 provides a nice introduction to the second paragraph, initiating a discussion about emotion regulation concluding with the fact that it is a process that is not consciously understood. Sen- tence 8 further explains why people struggle to con- sciously understand the emotion regulation process. Sentence 5 states that in this lack of under- standing, people do not realize the method they are using. Sentence 7 provides evidence backing the statement made in sentence 5. (Chapter 13 Lesson 15: Coordinating Ideas)

18

What is the best way to revise the underlined portion of sentence 12 (reproduced below)? As such, emotion regulation, while seemingly at the core of every decision we make, is actu- ally not something people can control.
(A) no revision is necessary (B) the seeming core of every decision we make (C) the core of every decision people make, it seems (D) while seemingly at the core of every decision people are making (E) when people make decisions, at the core

D Because the subject people is used in the non-underlined portion of this sentence, it is impor- tant to be sure to keep the pronouns parallel in the underlined portion of the sentence. Answer choice (D) does this most effectively while keeping the orig- inal meaning intact. (Chapter 13 Lesson 15: Coordinating Ideas) (Chapter 13 Lesson 3: Parallelism)