precipitation reactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in precipitation reactions Deck (35):
1

HBr

Hydrobromic Acid

2

HCl

Hydrochloric Acid

3

HI

Hydroiodic Acid

4

HNO_3

Nitric acid

5

HClO_4

Perchloric acid

6

H_2SO_4

Sulfuric acid

7

LiOH

Lithium hydroxide

8

NaOh

Sodium hydroxide

9

KOH

Potassium hydroxide

10

RbOH

Rubidium Hydroxide

11

CsOH

Cesium hydroxide

12

Ca(OH)_2

Calcium hydroxide

13

Sr(OH)_2

Strontium hydroxide

14

Ba(OH)_2

Barium hydroxide

15

Strong acids and bases do this in an (aq) solution

fully dissocciate

16

Strong acids and basses are also this

strong electrolytes

17

Monoprotic acids

contain one acidic proton

18

diprotic acids

contain 2 acidic protons

19

neutralization reaction

acids react with bases. Generally, water and salt are produced

20

hydration

occures when individual particles are removed from a solid and surrounded by water molecules

21

solubility

is a measure of a chemical substance's (solute's) ability to dissolve in a given solvent

22

Oxidation-reduction reactions

involve the transfer of electrons from one reactant to the other

23

easy way to remember oxidation and reduction

OILRIG, Oxidation is loss(of electrons), Reduction is gain(of electrons)

24

oxidation number

Oxidation state, represents the degree of oxidation of a chemical species. The oxidation number for a pure element is zero

25

Four rules for assigning oxidation numbers to chemical species

1. Oxidation state of any atom in its elemental state is zero
2. oxidation state of a monoatomic ion is equal to its charge
3. Sum of the oxidation numbers in a neutral compound is zero
4. sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge of the polyatomic ion

26

Arrhenius

acid: Generates H+ in solultion, HCl
base: generates OH- in solution, NaOH

27

Bronsted-Lowry

acid: H+ donor, HF
base: H+ acceptor NH_3

28

Lewis

acid: e- pair acceptor BF_3
base: e- pair donor PH_3

29

Types of compounds that undergo Gas-evolutoin reactions

Sulfides, bi-carbonates, bi-sulfates, ammonium

30

reactant types: sulfides

gas evolved H_2S

31

reactant type: bi-carbonate

gas evolved CO_2

32

reactant type: bi-sulfates

gas evolved SO_2

33

reactant type: ammonium

gas evolved NH_3

34

nonmetal oxidation state

F=-1, H=+1, O=-2, group 7A = -1, group 6A = -2, group 5A = -3

35

metal oxidation state

group 1A = +1, group 2A = +2