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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (61):
1

Atoms

Submicroscopic particals that constitue the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter

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Molecules

specific geometrical arrangements of atoms

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Chemistry

the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules

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hypothesis

tentative interpretation or explanation of observations. A good one is falsifiable

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experiments

highly controlled procedures designed to generate observations that may confirm or refute a hypothesis

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Scientific Law

Brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones

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law of conservation of mass

In a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destoryed

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Theory

One or more well-established hypotheses may for the basis for a theory. A model for the way nature is and tries to explain not only what nature does but why.

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Atomic Theory

Proposed by John Dalton

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Matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

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substance

a specific instance of matter. ex. air, water, sand

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state

A way of classifying matter by its physical form

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Composition

the basic components that make it up

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Three different states of matter

solid, liquid, gas

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Solid matter atoms or molecules...

pack close to each other in fixed locations. Fixed volume and shape.

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crystalline solid matter

atoms or molecules are arranged in patters with a long, repeating range and order. ex. salt

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Amorphous solid matter

atoms or molecules do no have any long range order. ex glass or plastic

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Liquid matter

atoms or molecules pack about as closely as they do in solid matter, but they are free to move relative to eachother. Fixed volume, not shape

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Gaseous Matter

atoms or molecules have alot of space between them and are free to move relative to one another, making them compressible. No fixed volume or shape

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Pure Substance

Made up of only one component and its composition is invariant

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Mixture

Composed of two or more components in proportions that can vary from one sample to the other

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Types of pure substances

Elements and compounds

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Element

a substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances

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Compound

a substance composed of two or more elements in a fixed, definite proportion

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Types of mixtures

heterogeneous and homogeneous

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Heterogeneous Mixture

the composition varies from one region of the mixture to another

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Homogeneous Mixture

same composition throughout

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Separating mixtures

decanting, distillation, filtration

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Decanting

carefully pouring off the the liquid into another container. Heterogeneous mixtures

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Distillation

Process in which the mixture is heated to boil of te more volatile liquid. Homogeneous

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volatility

ease of vaporization

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Filtration

the mixture is poured through a filter paper in a funnel. Heterogeneous

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Physical changes

changes that alter only stat or appearance but not composition. ex. boiling water changes from liquid to gas

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Chemical change

atoms rearrange, transforming the original substances into differant substances. ex. rusting iron

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Physical property

substance displays without changing is composition

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chemical property

substance displays only by changing its composition via chemical change

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Energy is

the capacity to do work

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Work is

as the action of a force through a distance

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kinetic energy

energy associated with motion

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potential energy

energy associated with its position or composition

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thermal energy

energy associated with the temperature of an object

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law of conservatoin of energy

energy is neither created nor destroyed, only changes form

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Units

standard quantities used to specify measurements

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Kelven to Celsius

K = C + 273.15

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Celsius to fahrenheit

C = (F - 32) / 1.8

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Prefix multipliers

Change the value of units by powers of 10

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derived unit

combination of other units. ex. miles/hour

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volume

a measure of space

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1 milliliter =

1 cm^3

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density

the ration of its mass to its volume

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density formula

d = m / v

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intensive property

independent of the amount of substance

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extensive property

dependent on the amout of the substance

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significant figures (significant digits)

non place holding digits

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exact numbers

have no uncertainty and do not limit the number of significant figures in a calculation

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Accuracy

how close the measured value is to the actual value

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precision

how close a series of measurements are to one another, and how reproducible they are.

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random error

error that has equal probability of being to high or too low. Enough trials should even it out.

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systematic error

error that tends toward being either too high or too low. Will not even itself out

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dimensional analysis

Using units as a guide to solving problems

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conversion factor

fractional quantity with the units we are converting from on the bottom and the units we are converting to on the top.